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by the 

American Society of Cinematographers 










luly 1933 

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July 1933 0 American Cinematographer 



Abel, David 
Allen, Paul H. 

Arnold, John 

Bell, Chas. E. 

Benoit, Georges 
Boyle, John W. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B. 
Clarke, Chas C. 
Cowling, H. T. 

Daniels, Wm. H. 
Davis, Chas. J. 
DeVinna, Clyde 
DeVol, Norman 
Dored, John 
Dubray, Jos. A. 
Dupar, E. B. 

Dupont, Max 
Dyer, Edwin L. 

Dyer, Elmer G. 

Edeson, Arthur 

Fildew, William 
Fisher, Ross G. 
Folsey, Geo. J., Jr. 
Freund, Karl 

Gaudio, Gaetano 
Gilks, Alfred 
Good, Frank B. 

Haller, Ernest 
Herbert, Chas. W. 
Hilburn, Percy 
Horne, Pliny 
Hyer, Wm. C. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Jackman, Fred 
June, Ray 
Jansen, W. H. 

Kershner, Glenn 
Koenekamp, H. F. 

Lang, Chas. B., Jr. 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Lundin, Walter 

MacWilliams, Glen 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marta, Jack A. 
Miller, Arthur 
Milner, Victor 
Mohr, Hal 

O’Connell, L, Wm. 

Palmer, Ernest 
Perry, Harry 
Polito, Sol 
Pomeroy, Roy 
Powers, Len 

Rees, Wm. A. 

Roos, Len H. 

Rose, Jackson J. 
Rosher, Chas. 
Rosson, Harold 

Schneiderman. Geo. 
Schoenbaum, Chas. 
Scott, Homer 
Seitz, John F. 

Sharp, Henry 
Shearer, Douglas G. 
Sintzenich, Harold 
Smith, Jack 
Snyder, Edward J. 
Stengler, Mack 
Struss, Karl 
Stull, Wm. 

Stumar, Charles 

Tappenbeck, Hi.tto 

Van Buren, Ned 
Van Trees, James 
Varges, Ariel 

Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Walker, Vernon L. 
Warrenton, Gilbert 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Westerberg, Fred 
Wilky, L. Guy 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wyckoff, Alvin 

Zucker, Frank C. 


Mr. Emery Huse 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 

Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 

Dr. Herbert Meyer 

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JOHN ARNOLD President 

VICTOR MILNER First Vice-President 

CHARLES C. CLARKE Second-Vice-President 
ELMER C. DYER Third Vice-President 




John Arnold 
Charles G. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Frank Good 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Miller 
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William Stull 

John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 
Alfred Gilks 
Fred Jackman 
Victor Milner 
Hal Mohr 
John F. Seitz 


Philip E. Rosen 
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Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 


John Arnold 
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Charles Bell 
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Paul H. Allen 
Georges Benoit 
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Max B. 

Herford T. Cowling 
Edwin L. Dyer 
Charles W. Herbert 
Mack Stengler 
Ross Fisher 
John Dored 
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Daniel B. Clark Elmer G. Dyer 

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William Stull 


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Frank B. Good 
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Fred W. Jackman 


American Cinematographer • July 1933 

Editor's Note: This is the first in a series of articles by 
Emery Huse, A.S.C., on Sensitometric Control. This series 
will comprise four installments. In the August issue Mr. 
Huse will deal with contrast as distinguished from gamma 
and also give general methods of negative development.) 

T IS the purpose of this paper to present a resume of the 
current methods involved in the application of sensi- 
tometry to motion picture film processing today in the 
major laboratories in Hollywood,, California. During the past 
decade very rapid progress has been made in the general 
technique of the handling of motion picture film of all kinds 
in a variety of processes. This paper, however, will discuss 
only that phase of the handling which deals with the actual 
chemical development processes. 

Ten years ago the development of motion picture film in 
Hollywood was entirely a manual operation being accom- 
plished with the aid of the well-known rack and tank sys- 
tem. During the last ten years much work has been done 
and many papers written on the general subject of machine 
development of motion picture film, with the result that at 
the present time, with the exception of one or two smaller 
laboratories, all film developed in Hollywood is handled by 
machines. With machine development one can feel assured 
that the actual conditions under which film is developed 
are much more stable than those conditions which existed 
under the now almost obsolete rack and tank methods. In 
discussing sensitometric control in the motion picture lab- 
oratories in Hollywood, therefore, it must be remembered 
that such laboratories as Paramount, Metro, Fox, Warners, 
Consolidated, Horsley, etc., use developing machines oper- 


ated at speeds in the neighborhood of 90 feet per minute. 

Prior to the actual use of the classical Hurter and Drif- 
field method of sensitometry in motion picture practice, 
certain less accurate control methods were in use. How- 
ever, until recently no precise sensitometric control instru- 
ments were available. All control was accomplished by visual 
judgment of the operator in actual charge of the develop- 
ment processes. By the rack and tank method of development 
densities were matched and picture quality was obtained 
solely as a result of visual comparison. Naturally a procedure 
of control which is dependent upon personal judgment lent 
for no standardization of results. It was possible to establish 
a procedure such as specifying a certain number of shakes 
to the rack at certain stated intervals of time during de- 
velopment, but the developing solutions were not taken care 
of from the replenisher standpoint with anywhere near the 
precision which now takes place with machine development 
and the accompanying circulating and conditioning systems. 

Hurter and Driffield Sensitometry 

The first thing to be considered in discussing the Hurter 
and Driffield system of sensitometry is the instrument with 
which a series of exposures can be impressed upon a piece 
of film under known conditions of light quality, light in- 
tensity, and exposure time. It can be readily seen that an 
ordinary picture does not allow for a complete technical 
analysis. It is not possible to determine the absolute bright- 
nesses which cause each of the different densities in the 
negative and although the time of exposure given in a cam- 
era is fairly well established it is still impossible to obtain 
a correct technical estimate of the total value of exposure 
as expressed by the simple equation E = It. In a mechani- 
cal instrument designed for impressing uniform exposures 
one is not confronted with a series of densities which are 
distributed heterogeneously throughout the film. With the 
aid of a properly designed instrument it is possible to obtain 
a series of uniformly exposed areas differing as a result of 
a known ratio of exposures. A strip of film containing a 
series of uniform areas of density gives a means by which 
certain technical analyses may be made of both the film and 
the developer. The first problem, therefore, to be consid- 
ered in setting up a sensitometric control is the establish- 
ment of this exposure instrument, which is called a sensi- 
tometer, and it must be able to make exposures which can 
be definitely repeated. From the standpoint of a sensi- 
tometer the Eastman Kodak Company built and placed on 
the market for general sale about two years ago an instru- 
ment which is called the Eastman Type Mb sensitometer. 
This instrument operates on the time scale principle and 
makes use of precisely calibrated tungsten lamps as the 
light source. This instrument has been adequately de- 
scribed by L. A. Jones ( 1 ) who designed and supervised the 
building of the instrument. 

The Eastman Type lib sensitometer was designed espe- 
cially to meet the need of the modern motion picture film 
laboratory. It provides a precise and rapid means of making 
routine sensitometric tests for the control of development 
processes. Figure 1 shows a partial vertical section through 
the optical axis of the sensitometer. This instrument im- 

July 1933 0 American Cinematographer 


Control in 
the Processing 
of Motion 
Picture Film 


* Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

presses on the film under test an accurately predetermined 
scale of exposures which may be maintained constant from 
test to test over long periods of time. The exposure scale 
consists of 21 steps produced by exposures equal in illumina- 
tion and ranging from 1 to 1024 in relative times, each 
exposure being 1.414 (square root of 2) times as long as 
the next shorter. This constant factorial difference between 
steps permits the density readings to be spaced at equal in- 
tervals along the log exposure axis in constructing an H and 
D (density-log E) curve. Figure 2 shows an actual sensi- 
tometric record made with this instrument. 

Tables 1 and 2 herewith submitted show the actual setup 
of the instrument for the exposure of positive and negative 
films respectively. 


Positive Setup 

Lamp . 72 watt, 6 volt, locomotive headlight, calibrated 

tor 2600°K. 

Filter 78 B correcting to 3000°K. 

Intensity .... 27 meter-candles 

t max 4.99 seconds at 50 cycles 

log E max. 2.13 


Negative Setup 

Lamp . . 36 watt, 6 volt, locomotive headlight, calibrated 

for 2360°K. 

Filter 79 correcting to 5400°K. 

Intensity 75 meter-candles 

t max 4.99 seconds at 50 cycles. 

log E max ... 0.57 

It is with this instrument that practically all sensitometric 
control in the processing of motion picture film in Hollywood 
is accomplished. At the time of this writing there are nine 
of these instruments in use there. It is interesting to note 
at this point that at the Annual Awards Banquet of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in November, 
1932, this instrument was given official recognition by being 
awarded an honorable mention by the committee on awards 
on Scientific and Technical Achievements. 

After the development of the sensitometric strip made 
on the Type lib sensitometer it is necessary, in order to 
attain the desired technical results, to find a means of 
measuring the densities of the various deposits. A photo- 
metric instrument of one type or another is used for this 
work. Such an instrument in common use in most of the 

''West Coast Manager, Motion Picture Film Division, Eastman Ko- 
dak Company. 

laboratories in Hollywood is the Eastman densitometer which 
has been described by Capstaff and Purdy (2). At the 
present time there are approximately 25 of these instruments 
in use in Hollywood, both in laboratories and in sound de- 
partments. Some of these departments make use of polari- 
zation photometers such as those made by Schmidt and 
Haensch or by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company. 

The Eastman densitometer, which is shown in Figure 3, is 
designed to fulfil several conditions, namely: the ability to 
read densities from 0.00 to 3.00; to measure very small 
areas ( V 2 sq. mm.) utilizing the same source of light for the 
illumination of the density to be measured and furnishing 
the light for the comparison beam; calibrated to read direct 
diffused density; and designed to be portable, compact and 
inexpensive. It has been shown in actual practice that this 
instrument fulfils these requirements. 

The West Coast Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany maintains a continual service in checking the densi- 
tometers in the field for their physical condition as well as 
their photometric ability, calibrations being made against 
standard densities originally calibrated in the Research 
Laboratories in Rochester. 

Inasmuch as the actual conditions of exposure of the 
sensitometric strip are known, i.e., the time of exposure and 
the intensity and quality of the exposing radiation, it is 
possible with the values of density available to construct the 
characteristic density-log E curve. As the exposure in- 
creases so the density increases until upon completion of the 
plotting of the curve a graph, such as is shown in Figure 4, 
is obtained. There are three distinct portions to this curve, 
namely: the toe, which is that portion indicated between 
A and B; the straight line, between B and C; and the 
shoulder, between C and D. It is quite well known that 
these three portions of the characteristic curve are referred 
to respectively as the regions of under exposure, correct ex- 
posure, and over exposure. It is of value, therefore, in the 
application of sensitometry to motion picture film processing 
to know the characteristic curve resulting from the develop- 
ment of sensitometric exposures in the negative, positive, 

Continued on next page 


American Cinematographer 9 July 1933 

Continued from preceding page 

and sound track developing 
solutions. Quite naturally the 
negative developer is studied in 
terms of exposures made on 
negative film, the positive de- 
veloper in terms of exposures 
made on positive film, etc. 











There are in the Hurter and 
Driffield system of sensitometry 
several constants regarding 
which data is desired. From 
the standpoint of motion pic- 
ture control, by far the most 
important characteristic is the 
slope of the straight line portion 
of the curve, which is com- 
monly referred to as “gamma.” 
Gamma is defined as the tan- 
gent of the angle formed by the 
straight line portion of the H 
and D curve and the log E axis, 
and is an indication of the de- 
gree of development. It is, of 
course, a constant of the emul- 
sion itself but for a given emul- 
sion developed in a given solu- 
tion gamma is a numerical spe- 
cification of the degree of de- 
velopment in that solution. It 
is important, furthermore, to 
know that as development time 
increases gamma increases, 
meaning that the straight line 
portion of the curve forms in- 
creasingly greater angles with 
the log E axis as development 
time progresses. This is an ex- 
tremely important fact. 

Probably the best way to de- 
termine for a given emulsion the 
reaction which a developing so- 
r- lution will give is by study of 
2 the rate at which gamma builds 
— * up with development time. Fig- 
ure 5 shows a series of H and 
D curves, all of which had iden- 
tical exposures in an Eastman 
Fig. 2 Type lib sensitometer, but 

each strip of which received a different time of develop- 
ment under a constant developing condition. After the 
determination of gamma for each of these curves, these 
values are plotted as ordinates against the time of develop- 
ment as the abscissa. A new curve is thus obtained which 
definitely shows the relationship existing between gamma 
and development time and this curve is referred to as 
the time gamma curve. From the sensitometric standpoint 
this curve tells a great deal about the condition, or rather the 
reaction, of that developer to that particular type of film. 
It is now very easy to see that regardless of whether nega- 
tive or positive film is to be developed, the determination 
of a time-gamma curve for negative film in the negative 
solution and for positive film in the positive solution is very 
essential. In actual practice complete series of H and D 
curves for a variety of development times are not obtained 
because with practice it is readily determined what the 
probable range of development times will be and it is there- 
fore only necessary to construct time-gamma curves over the 
range which is within that used practically. There are several 




other sensitometric constants which while important, both 
from a technical and practical standpoint, do not necessarily 
occupy the same important niche as that filled by gamma. 
Reference is made to the constants speed, latitude, and fog. 


Speed as a sensitometric constant has been subjected to 
many interpretations. From the standpoint of the practical 
photographer, speed and density mean much the same thing 
for the reason that if two samples of film are exposed 
simultaneously to the same quantity and quality of light and 
then developed for the same time, that sample showing the 
greatest density is considered the fastest. From the stand- 
point of the Hurter and Driffield method of sensitometery, 
speed has a little different meaning and it is arbitrarily de- 
fined as the reciprocal of the inertia multiplied by a con- 
stant, i.e., 


S - — x k 


The inertia “i” is defined as the exposure value at the 
point where on the log E the straight line portion of the H 
and D curve extended cuts that axis. The value of the 
constant “k” should be so chosen that it is sufficiently large 
so that values of speed for various commercial emulsions 
are of convenient magnitude for practical use. Speed de- 
terminations made by this method on the Eastman Type lb 
sensitometer make use of the value 10 as the constant k. 
Speeds as thus determined are not of any particular value to 
the practical laboratory man. This method of speed de- 
termination has been discussed because it is technically im- 
portant and furthermore it was desirable to acquaint the 
reader with the fact that this constant exists. 


Latitude is a constant which has to do with the range of 
brightnesses which can be adequately rendered by a photo- 
graphic emulsion. The numerical specification of latitude 

Continued on Page 1 1 1 

Fig. 3 

July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 89 

Gives Us 
Greatest Worry 

As told by 

Harry Perry, A.S.C. 

to Karl Hale 

Editor’s Note: Harry Perry has contributed photography to prac- 
tically every famous air epic that has reached the screen. Wings, 
Hell's Angels and many others have given the audiences of the 
world photography contributed by him.) 

V IBRATION is the bugaboo of the cameraman in the 
air. It has taught us to anchor our equipment solidly. 
Temporary fastening will not do. 

We not only have vibration to contend with, but also the 
back wash of the propeller when we are not shooting from 
a cabin job. But, still, we have more respect for vibration 
than any other factor in photographing from the air. 

We not only watch our contrivances on the camera itself, 
but always keep a weather eye open to the fastening of the 
camera. They’ll work loose sometimes for some unknown 
reason. An incident like this happened to me. I observed 
that the camera was listing . . . not much, but still listing, 
and there was a more noticeable vibration. I immediately 
looked to the fastening and found that one of the bolts 
was working loose. The assistant cameraman had to take 
the place of the bolt for the rest of the trip. He had to 
hang on with all of his strength to keep that camera solid. 
The wind pressure was tremendous; we were also hitting 
'umpy air pockets. 

One time we hit an air pocket that sent me to the full 
length of my six-foot safety belt . . . that airplane dropped 
right out from under me, but fortunately my camera kept 
on grinding. My return to the cockpit could hardly be 
called graceful . . . certainly was in accordance with 
the best laws of gravity. I mention this to show the great 
importance of secure anchoring of the camera at all times. 

And another vital thing is to be sure that all detachable 
parts are wired or taped securely. Once I had set the au- 
tomatic camera on the running gear of the plane, and so 
arranged the control that the pilot could push the starting 
button. When he came back to the field he had several 
hundred feet of negative trailing back of his plane. The 
powerful back-wash from the propeller and the vibration 
had worked the magazine cover off; also succeeded in loos- 
ening the take-up reel, with the obvious result, a trail of 
ribbon flying back of the plane that might have been a 
fine piece of decoration for a honeymooner’s auto. 

It is these experiences that have taught the cinematog- 
raphers of the air some of the technical things they are up 
against. The shooting of pictures in most instances is haz- 
ardous enough without attempting to take chances with 
equipment . . . those things must be perfect . . . they must 
be so that they can be operated with the least difficulty at 
all times. Some of us have developed our own filter adapt- 
ers . . . they are important tools up in the air. The sky 
changes, conditions change and we have to make rapid 
changes of filters as we are flying. We cannot start out 
with a certain filter and feel it is going to meet all require- 
ments. The blueness of the sky is a thing that we must 
read at a glance. If it is the soft blue that comes out well, 
of course we use the lighter filter . . . possibly a K or a C 
or Aero Filter . . . but if it is a washed out or a steely blue 
we must go into the heavier reds . . . and those conditions 
are changing rapidly ... in fact, so rapidly sometimes that 
it is absolutely essential that we can make a rapid change of 
filters before the scene leaves us at the high rate of speed 
the plane usually travels. 

The air photographer has learned many things that the 
man working on the ground does not have to contend with. 
We must be sure that the exhaust of the motor is not 
sweeping across our lens, or it will give us a fog effect. 
Flies have been known to get into the lens hood and spoil a 
shot. I have known this to happen twice in succession. 
Once in the hood the high wind pressure will not let them 
get out. 

I have found vibration so bad when shooting colored pic- 
tures, where more than one piece of film is in the aperture 
at one time, as to work this film away from registered posi- 
tion and lose the loop entirely, buckling the film. 

The aerial cinematographer prefers the cabin planes for 
shooting. It eliminates that terrible wind blast from the 

propeller. He prefers to have the door taken off, when the 
plane owner will permit. This gives more freedom of action. 
But when using an open plane he must take what the pro- 
peller delivers to him. To overcome this, a windshield was 
built for the cinematographer on one occasion, only to find 
that it interfered with the force of the propeller wind back 
to the tail of the ship and that the ship could not be steered, 
as it was not getting sufficient wind to affect the rudder. 

However, a very important thing is to have a pilot who 
understands pictures . . . one who can keep the objective in 
sight . . . who can interpret angles. 

Harry Perry, A.3.C., ready for a flight among the 
clouds to photograph screen thrills. 


American Cinematographer 0 July 1933 

For the Studio 


William Stull, A. S.C. 

Member of Research Committee, 
American Society of Cinematographers 

F OLLOWING in the footsteps of the well-known ‘Pho- 
toflood” bulbs announced a few months ago for non- 
professional photographic use, the General Electric 
Company has brought forth a similar type of globe in larger 
units for studio use, known as the ‘‘Super-Photoflood.” Al- 
though produced especially to meet the requirements of 
modern natural-color cinematography, the new lamps should 
be at least equally useful in the more common field of 
black-and-white camera work, since they offer a more in- 
tense, whiter light with a very marked reduction of infra- 
red (heat) radiation. 

The principle of the photoflood is probably too well 
known to require additional exposition here, especially since 
many cinematographers already employ the smaller photo- 
floods in ‘‘Baby Spots” and in “practical” set light-fixtures. 
Suffice it to say that they are high-efficiency bulbs, designed 
to operate with great intensity on currents considerably in 
excess of their rated voltage, giving an intense white light. 
It is well known that if the voltage applied to a lamp is 
increased, the light-output increases at a much faster rate 
than either voltage or wattage, while the amount of blue- 
violet radiation increases faster than does the red-orange. 
A 10% increase in voltage, for instance, will give a 16% 
increase in wattage, but a 40% increase in light output. 
In the case of the small photoflood lamp, rated at 65 volts 
but normally operated at from 110-115 volts, an 80% in- 
crease in volts increases the wattage two and one-half 
times, but raises the light volume five and one-half times. 
The new Super-photofloods, when compared to standard 
types now in general use in the studios, are found to give 
an increase of 270% in the violet region (4000-4500 Ang- 
strom) but only 55% increase in the red (6300-7000 
Angstrom). Based on an equal red radiation for the two 

lamps, the increase in the violet is 140%. The overall 
increase in intensity is approximately 100%. Used in a 
standard studio unit — the Mole-Richardson “Rifle” type, 
which concentrates 59% of the light within a 60-degree 
angle — we find that whereas a standard 1 500-watt PS-52 
type bulb directs 17,200 lumens in the sixty-degree useful 
angle, the new 2000-watt PS-52 (Super-Photoflood I gives 
34,400 lumens in the same angle, an increase of exactly 
100 %. 

There is, however, the familiar drawback to all photo- 
flood lamps — shorter life. The smaller photofloods, as is 
well known, have an average life of between two and three 
hours at full intensity. This life is materially increased in 
many installations, however, by the use of shunt circuits 
which permit the operator to burn the lamp at a reduced 
voltage while lining up, and then to switch to full voltage 
and intensity for actual photographing. The same expedient 
is recommended for conserving the larger photofloods, which 
normally have a life of from 1 5 to 1 8 hours at full intensity. 
It is entirely feasible to reduce the line voltage to approxi- 
mately 90 volts, by means of either a field control at the 
generator, or by the use of grids outside of the set, keeping 
this voltage while preparing, and operating the lamps at 
full voltage only when actually shooting. With all of the 
lamps operating at a uniformly-reduced voltage during the 
preparatory work, lighting balances, contrasts, shadows, etc., 
should not be altered when the lamps are brought up to full 
voltage, while the life of the bulbs would be materially * 
increased. As these bulbs darken quickly, a cleaning-pow- 
der is provided in the globes, and they should be cleaned 
after every five or six hours of full-intensity operation. 

These new lamps will take care of the floor-lighting 
units; but how about the larger units used overhead? It 
has been found unnecessary to develop new bulbs for these, 
since the already available 5 kw. and 10 kw. types are 
already designed for extreme efficiency. It is necessary only 
to use the bulbs of this size rated for 105 volts on 120- 
volt circuits to get the desired effect. 

Of course, when some new development such as this is 
announced, the inevitable question in the minds of its pro- 
spective users is, “Very nice — but what will it actually do?” 
To answer this, we must examine the relationship between 
existing lamps and the SuperSensitive film now in general 
use. Essentially — despite all of the recent progress in pan- 
chromatization — we have a film, highly sensitive at the 
blue-violet end of the spectrum, and somewhat less sensitive 
toward the red-orange end. With normal Mazda lamps, 
we have a light having its greatest radiation in the orange- 
red and beyond, but tapering down toward the blue-violet 
end of the spectrum — a very fortuitous combination. More 
than a few of the outstanding masters of the camera, how- 
ever, have found that the best results are obtained by using 
a very light bluish silk over their lights, passing the blue- 
violet and green components freely, but slightly curtailing 
the yellow, orange and red frequencies. The photoflood 
bulb, though not making so great a correction, follows this 
lead to a certain degree, as its radiation is markedly in- 
creased in the blue-violet region, and decreased in the 
orange-red. It is, in fact, a much closer approximation 
of sunlight than has hitherto been achieved in clear-glass 
Mazda bulbs. The Super-photoflood should, therefore, give 
a decidedly marked improvement in quality — in the pleas- 
ing rendition of tone and texture. This has already been 
acknowledged by many cinematographers in their practice 
of using the smaller photofloods in baby spots and practical 
set lighting-fixtures. Continued on Page 114 

July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 

Special Effect 
Use of Filte rs 

Part II 


Hartley H arrison 

Editor’s Note: This is the second in the series of articles on Fil- 
ters by Hartley Harrison, well-known manufacturer of color and 
effect filters. 

N THE previous article we discussed three rules of fil- 
ters, namely: That a colored filter is only selective when 
there is color for it to select from; that a colored filter 
only changes the exposure of objects that are of a different 
color than that of the filter, and that a color filter does not 
change the exposure of objects which are the same color 
as the filter. 

Keeping the fact in mind that all panchromatic film is 
more blue sensitive than it is red sensitive, and that it is 
more red sensitive than it is green sensitive, let’s apply 
these filter rules to special effect use. 

One of the most common special effect uses of filters is 
making an ordinary day scene look like a night scene, so 
we will draw our word picture around that type of appli- 

In making this type of scene we have a choice of two 
kinds of effects, a contrasty, under-exposed moonlight scene 
and a flat under-exposed night scene, with the objects just 
visible and no detail even in the highlights. Of the two the 
last one is probably the most difficult, as the greatest con- 
trast is always obtained with an under-exposure, and this 
contrast must be reduced in the flat night scenes. Of course, 
the subject and conditions determine the type of filter to 
use in throwing the scene out of the balance that is seen 
visually, so we will of necessity explain the conditions and 
subjects and apply various filters to them. 

Let’s take the making of flat night scenes for our illus- 
tration, and suppose we have a blue sky with large white 
clouds, and the sun reflected from off of a white house 
with light gray sidewalks, what shrubbery there is being 
gray with dust and fairly high surface reflection. Our blue 
sky would then have the least amount of light and we 
would want to reduce the exposure of the house, etc., to 
that of the sky. We would, therefore, pick a filter that 
would not change the exposure of the sky, and according 
to our third rule, a blue filter would not change the ex- 
posure of blue light, therefore we would use a blue filter. 
Now our second rule says that a filter will change the ex- 
posure of objects that are not of the same color as that of 
the filter, the white house being composed of reflecting 
green and red as well as blue, the blue filter would hold 
back the exposure of practically everything except the blue 
sky and tend to reduce all of the scene to a common gray 
relation on the film, which is just the thing we are striving 

for. The bluer the sky is, the greater the difference we 
can make up to the point where, when we use a monocro- 
matic blue filter; that is, one that will ailow only blue 
to pass through and stop all of the red and green, and we 
have a pure blue sky, we have reached the saturation point 
of color and from thereon we have no control over differ- 
ences of amounts of light coming from different objects as 
far as colored filters are concerned. 

Now, let’s change our subject to a blue sky and an au- 
tumn foreground with brown trees, dark yellow grass, etc., 
and our greatest illumination coming from our sky. Now, 
obviously, to hold back the sky to as near a balance as the 
foreground, we would use a yellow filter because browns 
are very dark yellows (of course, yellow being red and 
green and the shade of yellow depending upon amount of 
red to the amount of green), and if we reduce our fore- 
ground to primary colors we have a red and green fore- 
ground with the red predominating if it’s a reddish brown, 
therefore our filter should be a reddish yellow filter like a 
K3 or a C, or as we go heavier, a combination 23A red 
and 6 green, or still heavier, a 72 gamma, all of which are 
red and green combinations, with the red predominating. 
Now, going back to our foreground, which is red and green, 
we use a red and green filter, but in trying to handle two 
colors, we lose some exposure in our foreground, although 
we also gain in effectiveness against our blue sky, so let us 
apply our rule by first putting on a red filter and then a 

green filter instead of both at the same time. When we 

add the red filter we allow all of the red in the brown to 
pass through the red filter, but at the same time we stop 
some of the green, depending on how much green there is 
in the brown and how heavy the red is. Now we add our 

green filter, which allows all of the green to pass through 

that is not stopped by the red, but the green stops some 
of the red, although we have a predominating red-green 
combination, but at that we have lost some of our fore- 
ground exposure. Now let us see how we have affected 
our blue sky. When we added the red filter we stopped 
the major part of our blue, and when we added the green 
we stopped the balance, so that a comparatively small 

Continued on Page 1 1 6 

No filter used for top illustration. Bottom 
illustration green filter used to secure a flat 
effect in night scene. For contrast in a night 
scene a red filter would be used. 


American Cinematographer 

July 1933 


of the MONTH 

T HE past thirty days have seen the release of more 
products of outstanding photographic calibre than any 
similar period in a long time. Half a dozen or more 
of the outstanding members of the American Society of 
Cinematographers have displayed examples of their best 
work, as though vieing for premiere honors; and although 
the films are intensely varied in type and style, each is a 
memorable example of the highest type of cinematography. 
No student of cinematography should miss seeing any of 


A Fox Production 

photographed by George Schneiderman, A.S.C. 

This is far and away the best opportunity that has come 
the way of Cinematographer Schneiderman in many years. 
He has made it an unusually beautiful photoplay, and Di- 
rector John Ford has done his work with more than a little 
consideration of the pictorial element. The early sequences, 
especially, are notable examples of composition and light- 
ing, and in them Mr. Schneiderman has achieved some re- 
markable suggestions of natural depth; in all probability 
some of these scenes are as close to truly three-dimensional 
photography as can ever be attained with a single-lens sys- 
tem. ‘‘Pilgrimage” was made throughout with standard 
lens and lighting equipment, so this achievement is due 
solely to Cinematographer Schneiderman’s mastery of lenses 
and perspective lighting. “Pilgrimage” is decidedly a pic- 
ture well worth study — and excellent entertainment, to boot. 


A Paramount Production 
photographed by Karl Struss, A.S.C. 

A morbid psychological study, “The Story of Temple 
Drake” is hardly more entertaining than is a beautifully pho- 
tographed film of a major operation; yet it is in many ways 
a highly commendable production. It is marked by superb 
direction and a magnificent performance by Miriam Hop- 
kins — but most important of all, it is, throughout, Karl 
Struss at his brilliant best. The action covers a wide va- 
riety of settings and moods; but through it all, Struss man- 
ages to maintain the necessary ominous note in his photog- 
raphy, playing, as it were, a visual prelude like a Wagnerian 
overture, subtly paving the way for what is to follow. Mid- 
way through the picture are some exceptional sequences of 
effect-lightings which merit careful attention from every 
student of cinematography, amateur or professional. The 
amateur, especially, will be interested in some of these light- 
ings, as they reveal the potentialities of SuperSensitive film 
and extreme low-key lightings, as well as the effectiveness of 
single-source lightings made with unusually small units. One 
scene, for example, is played with a match and a cigarette 

for the sole light-source, while several others were made 
with a single 500-watt bulb. 

Aside from these technical considerations, however, ‘‘The 
Story of Temple Drake” offers a vast deal of information 
as an outstanding example of the fine art of cinematography. 
By all means see it — but don’t expect light entertainment! 


A Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Production 
photographed by William Daniels, A.S.C. 

To this reviewer’s mind, at any rate, “The White Sister” 
is an achievement entirely to be credited to Cinematographer 
Daniels, for his superb camera work alone bolsters up an 
outmoded and ailing story and a deal of uncertain acting. 
His photography is unfailingly beautiful, and carries exactly 
the right amount of softness to suit the tragic,, sentimental 
story. His treatment of the players is excellent, showing 
them to excellent advantage; his lightings are all up to his 
usual high standard. The compositions are often noteworthy, 
and several of the transitions are most effective; especially 
the one from Clark Cable’s burning airplane to the fire- 
place before which Helen Hayes is unpacking her lover’s 
effects. Director Fleming — an ex-cinematographer — was 
very wise in his use of the moving-camera technique, and 
of other visual directorial tricks. “The White Sister,” how- 
ever, is (as more than a few of the lay critics have already 
observed) primarily “Bill” Daniels’ picture. 


Directed by Sergei Eisenstein and released by Sol Lesser, 
photographed by Edvard Tisse. 

Emasculated by the regrettable embroglio which prevented 
Mr. Eisenstein from personally cutting this production, 
“Thunder Over Mexico” (originally known as “Que Viva 
Mexico!”) is more Tisse than Eisenstein. Although un- 
skilled hands in the cutting room did away with most of 
the originality that is expected of Eisenstein, nothing could 
destroy it — though an Eisenstein picture is not truly Eisen- 
stein’s without Eisenstein’s highly individual editorial tech- 
nique — it is not without its merits; for as I have said before, 
while the world acknowledges Eistenstein as a master direc- 
tor, it has paid all too little tribute to the photographic 
ability of his Scandinavian co-worker, Edvard Tisse. 

“Thunder Over Mexico” is, therefore, largely the triumph 
of M. Tisse. It is the first time that he has enjoyed the tre- 
mendous advantage of really good film and laboratory work 
— and the results that he has achieved should give him un- 
questioned rank as one of the great cinematographers of the 
world. He had little to work with in “Thunder Over Mexi- 
co” — no sets, no interior scenes, no artificial lighting equip- 
ment, none of the many aids to exterior cinematography 
enjoyed by his American confreres; just an old deBrie cam- 

July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 


era, hand-cranked, perforce; a few crude reflectors; some 
filters; a few hundred thousand feet of DuPont negative; 
a first-class American laboratory; and one of the few living 
directors who really understand the visual foundation of the 
cinema. With these ingredients, Tisse has achieved one of 
the most superbly beautiful examples of exterior cinema- 
tography ever made. He presents to American audiences the 
first intimation of the real beauties of our southern neigh- 
bor, Mexico; the grandeur of the ancient Maya and Aztec 
ruins of Yucatan; the deserts and mountains of the North; 
the pastoral beauty of the vast maguey plantations; and the 
hitherto unrevealed soul and form of the Mexican peon. 

It is a noteworthy achievement. Though audiences may 
be disappointed at the film’s lack of the Eisenstein technique 
(there are none the less a few in Hollywood who could have 
cut the film understandingly ) they will surely end by pay- 
ing a well-deserved tribute to that great artist. Cinematog- 
rapher Edvard Tisse. 


A Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Production 
photographed by Ray June, A.S.C. 

From the reviewer’s point of view, the easiest thing to 
do about this picture would be simply to state that it is 
another example of Ray June’s fine work, for Cinematogra- 
pher June has of late been so consistent a bell-ringer that 
it is necessary only to read the words “Photographed by Ray 
June” to know that a first-clas spiece of cinematography is 
forthcoming. In “When Ladies Meet,” June his excelled 
nimself, for he has turned out an unusually fine picture 
under circumstances which were not always too propitious. 
He has made the players appear extremely well — Ann Hard- 
ing and Alice Brady, particularly. He has, moreover, han- 
dled a picture enacted almost exclusively on pure white 
sets — often a difficult assignment — in an outstanding way. 
In a word, his entire technique in “When Ladies Meet” de- 
serves commendation and — what is more — careful study in 
every particular. 


A Fox Production 

photographed by John F. Seitz, A.S.C. 

This production furnishes an opportunity for comparison 
of American and German film-technique in all its branches. 
“Adorable” was made, scene for scene, from a delightful 
German film called “Her Highness Commands” ( “ I hr Ho- 
gheit Befeihlt”). As entertainment, each is equally delight- 
ful; but the technique of the American-made version is 
immeasurably superior to the continental version. Speaking 
cinematographically, “Adorable” shows American cinema- 
tography at its best, reflecting the more favorable physical 
conditions obtaining here as well as the radically different 
styles of Hollywood and Neubabelsberg. Greater attention 
is here paid to personal lightings, and the production is pre- 
sented in a decidedly higher key. The American settings, 
though less atmospheric than the German ones, are more 
sumptuous. (Personally, I am inclined to blame Gordon 
Wiles for making his palace sets too reminiscent of St. Pe- 
ter’s, in Rome. One can’t picture Janet Gaynor inhabiting 
a cathedral!) The sound-recording is immeasurably better 
in the Fox version, of course; though our music is not of 
such high quality. The two films are, in short, extremely 
instructive to the student of motion picture craftsmanship. 

Considered purely on its own merits, “Adorable” is an 
excellent picture. Photographically speaking, it is on a par 
with Seitz’s finest work. His compositions and lightings 
are, as ever, well-nigh flawless; and his treatment of the 
stars is excellent. In several of the scenes he has had un- 
usually light sets and costumes to work with, and he has 

handled these in an exemplary manner. The use of lap- 
dissolves in portraying the successive promotions of Henry 
Garat are amusing — and most effective. The use of the 
moving camera is highly intelligent, as it is used discreetly, 
and to good effect — or not at all. 


A Paramount Production 
Photographed by Ernest Haller, A.S.C. 

Cinematographer Haller has few opportunities for cine- 
matic distinction in such a wild farce-comedy as this, but 
he has done a decidedly commendable job. Everything had 
of course to be lit for comedy; moreover, part of the pic- 
ture was made in Hollywood, and part, perforce, in New 
York. Despite these handicaps, Haller has turned out a 
very well-balanced job of camera work. The Television in 
vention which motivates what plot there is, is an excellent 
example of the possibilities of process photography, for 
which Farciot Edouart is to be commended. The miniature 
and glass-shot sequences are also excellent, while the cam- 
era work of the ballot numbers adds a deal of interest to 
otherwise dragging spots. 

A new lens-angle gauge .designed by Virgil E. 
Miller, Camera Executive at the Paramount Studio, 
and now available to cinematographers. Below is 
shown the opaque, celluloid base, ruled in squares 
representing feet, and perforated at the intersec- 
tions of the rulings. Below is the angle-gauge, a 
transparent sheet of celluloid, engraved on one 
side to indicate the vertical angles covered by the 
most commonly-used professional lenses, with the 
horizontal angles shown on the other side. In use, 
the transparent gauge is superimposed on the ruled 
base, with the registering-pegs fitted into which- 
ever of the perforations on the base indicate the 
desired location of the camera, and the angular 
coverage read off at a glance. The opposite angle 
is read in the same way, with the gauge turned 

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American Cinematographer • July 1933 

3 , 



The Riddle: What can the 
cinematographer do to en- 
hance a musical picture to 
increase the originality and effectiveness with which musi- 
cal and dancing sequences are presented; to make them in- 
teresting and dynamic rather than dull and static? 

CHARLES B. LANC, A.S.C., photographer of "Farewell to 
Arms” and “A Bedtime Story”: 

“To my mind, this is more properly the problem of the 
director than of the cinematographer. Any cinematographer 
however, will undoubtedly be able to furnish some ideas 
which, when worked out in co-operation with the director, 
the dance director and the musical director, will help to 
make the presentation of the number in question more defi- 
nitely a part of the picture, rather than an arbitrary interpo- 
lation. This, of course, is simply in line with the cinema- 
tographer’s invariable co-operation in the production of any 

“Strictly speaking, I feel that musical films offer the 
cinematographer many interesting opportunities for artistic 
experimentation. The musical film, it must be remembered, 
is potentially a new artistic medium, differing alike from 
the conventional talking picture, the musical dramas and 
comedies of the stage, and from silent or synchronized 
films. Some few foreign productions — such as Eisenstein 
and Tisse’s “Romance Sentimentale,” and a few of the Ger- 
man musical-films — have hinted somewhat at the poten- 
tialities of this new field. Unfortunately, the majority of 
musical pictures thus far produced here have been more 
properly photographed musical-comedies or revues rather 
than the true film with music. A true film of this latter 
nature would offer the cinematographer a tremendously in- 
teresting means of expression, in which he could make his 
camera, lightings, angles, movement, and so on, play their 
parts like instruments of an orchestra. I should enjoy ex- 
perimenting along this line tremendously — especially if I 
were given the opportunity to photograph a musical drama, 
in which the photographic technique would necessarily be 
more on the order of that of a dramatic picture than is the 
case with most musicals. The visual, photographic possi- 
bilities of really great music — such as, for instance, some 
of the arias from Wagner or some of the Russian operas — 
would be tremendous, especially with the recent improve- 
ments in color-cinematography.” 

JOHN ARNOLD, A.S.C., Photographer of “The Broadway 
Melody” and “The Hollywood Revue”: 

“More than a few of the nationally-known film-critics 
have pointed out that the Art of Cinematography has far 
outstripped the creations of the scenarists; if this is true 
in the case of the regular run of dramas and comedy-dramas, 
it is doubly so where filmusicals are concerned. The ma- 
jority of our writers, directors and producers are approaching 
the musical film from the viewpoint of the stage musical- 
comedy — not from the viewpoint of the film-with-music. 
Accordingly, the Cinematographers assigned to photograph 
such films are to a regrettable extent forced to confine 
themselves to purely routine methods of photographing the 

musical and ballet sequences. The inevitable result will be, 
of course, an exact repetition of the musical cycle of four 
years ago; the first few musicals released will succeed — and 
the many others now being rushed into production, being for 
the most part inferior copies of the first, which are, in turn, 
largely copies of stage musicals, will become less and less 
successful, until the last few will either lose tremendously, 
or end on the shelves — a total loss. The only answer is for 
the writers, composers, and so on, to strive to make musi- 
cals primarily for camera and microphone, rather than merely 
writing modified stage musical-comedies and expecting us 
to record them with camera and microphone. The true 
musical film offers endless opportunities, for they are virgin 
soil; but our cinematographers, directors, and recordists are 
at present forced to till unproductive ground, waiting for 
writers with sufficient vision, and sufficient understanding 
of the cinema, to provide them with really worthy material.” 

JOHN F. SEITZ, A.S.C., photographer of “Adorable”: 

“There is no need to expatiate upon the cinematic po- 
tentialities of motion pictures with music; we have not be- 
gun to explore them as yet. Under the existing conditions, 
however, we are all of us working under well-nigh insur- 
mountable handicaps, for the work of the various individuals 
concerned in a production of this type is far from properly 
co-ordinated. For instance, in many of the musical films 
I have made, neither the director, the players, or I have 
had any idea of much of the music of the film while we 
were making the ‘musical’ sequences. In some cases, even, 
the music had not even been written! This left us in the 
position, figuratively speaking, of a singer who knew the 
words of a song, but not the music, or of a dancer who knew 
the choreography of her dance, but had no idea of the musi- 
cal setting. Whatever is accomplished under such conditions 
is largely a matter of luck, and no more reveals the true 
possibilities of the medium than a baby’s first babblings 
reveal the majestic English of Shakespeare or Milton. What 
is needed is more thorough preparatory co-operation between 
the writers and composers and the men on the set — the 
director, cinematographer, and ballet-master. Only when 
we have a complete understanding of all of the ingredients 
of a musical scene or sequence can we so co-ordinate our 
efforts of direction, lighting, camera-placement and move- 
ment, and all, to produce a truly satisfactory result.” 

HAL MOHR, A.S.C., photographer of “The Jazz Singer,” 
“The Singing Fool,” “Glorious Betsy,” “Broadway,” “The 
King of Jazz,” “I Loved You Wednesday,” etc.: 

“The production of a musical or ballet sequence is, essen- 
tially much like the production of any other type of se- 
quence, dramatic, comedy, or whatever the case may be. 
Accordingly, it has the same requirements: perfect under- 
standing and co-operation between whoever is staging the 
action, and the cinematographer. Such a sequence should 
always have a definite story to tell; therefore the man who 
conceives the story, the man who supervises its enaction, 
and the man who records it on the film must understand 
each other, and be perfectly agreed on the method of telling 
the story with camera and microphone. Since each indi- 

Continued on Page 1 1 5 



B EHIND every talkie stands 
your original sound record... 
unknown, unseen, unheard by 
the public, but arresting in its im- 
portance. For clear superiority ... for 
highest fidelity under all conditions 
of variable-area and variable-density 
recording ... use Eastman Sound 
Recording Film. It is a vital though 
silent factor in today’s sound suc- 
cesses. Eastman Kodak Company. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, 
New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 




American Cinematographer ® July 1933 

General Electric Projection Lamps 

• The General Electric Company an- 
nounces a new projection lamp in the 
100-volt class that is said to obviate the 
expense and weight of auxiliary trans- 
former or large resistance used in the past 
with low-voltage lamps. It is the conten- 
tion of the manufacturer that these lamps 
give a screen illumination which averages 
nearly twice as high as those available 
two years ago. 

The Biplane construction is now incor- 
porated in five of the new lamps, in 500, 
750 and 1,000-watt sizes. 

It is also claimed that a marked ad- 
vance has been made in the wattage for 
given size of bulb and a means has been 



introduced for the better control of bulb 

Special Filter 

• Harrison and Harrison have developed a 
special filter for use in studios to give 

the proper correction in the faces of the 
players. This is a very light red filter and 
is said not to increase the exposure to 
any appreciable extent, but its use is 
claimed to eliminate the chalkiness that 
is so often the result without it. 

New 8 mm. Camera 

• According to an announcement from 
Stewart-Warner Corporation, that com- 
pany has ready for the market a new 
8 mm. camera. This camera weighs a 
trifle over a pound and a half. It takes 
the regular twenty-five-foot roll of 8 mm. 
film which, when finished, gives the 
equivalent of 100 feet of 16 mm. in film 

Electric Motor for 16 mm. 

• W illiam J. Grace, of Dallas, Texas, an- 
nounces a new remote electric control 

device for the Cine-Kodak. The current is 
furnished by a 6 to 12-volt battery or 
can be operated on 8-20 volt A.C. It 
attaches conveniently to the camera and 
comes with 20 feet of cord. 

Stressing Exposure Meter 

• Both Willoughby and Weston stress 
the importance of exposure meters to 

the travelers during their vacation days. 
Going into different climatic and atmos- 
pheric conditions man find a change of 
exposure that will be different than the 
normal the Cine Filmer is accustomed to 
on his home grounds. 

New Rolleiflex Accessories 

• According to an announcement from 
Burleogh Brooks, American distributor 

of the Rolleiflex camera, several new ac- 
cessories have been developed for use 


with that popular camera. What is termed 
an iris-stop is now available. This is a 
clip on stop for the finder, and serves 
for ascertaining the depth of focus ac- 
cording to the focusing screen as an 
exposure meter. The Panorama-head is 
another interesting addition. When turned 
to the right a spring rachet snaps from 
figure to figure. Each two adjoining fig- 
ures give two connecting pictures. By 
this means you can secure a continuous 
panoramic picture. The stereo fitment is 
attached to the tripod for the perfect pro- 
duction of three-dimension pictures with 
the Rolleiflex. 

Another new accessory that is expected 
in this country soon is what is termed 
the Cine-film attachment. This acces- 
sory consists of an adapter back-panel 
with a counting mechanism (1 to 36), a 
film-guide frame for the cine format, a 
daylight take-up spool, single slide for 
Agfa-Leica cartridges and an inlay frame 
for the focusing screen. The picture for- 
mat is upright. 

Semi-Professional Filmo 

• Announcement from Bell Gr Howell that 
the 70DA Filmo can be semi-profes- 
sionalized will find considerable interest 
among advanced amateurs, clubs, and 
others. These professional improvements 
are all based on the present 70DA, which 
already has seven film speeds, three-lens 
turret, variable viewfinder and magnifying 
critical focuser. The special features 
which can be had on special order, or 
may be incorporated in the present Filmo 
70-D, include 100 to 200-foot film ca- 
pacity, electric driving motor ( 1 2 or 110- 
volt) , 8-to-l hand crank for use without 
motor. This can move film backward for 
lap dissolve. It incorporates a mask box 
for double exposures and built-in range 

New Mitchell Filter Holder 

• A variable Diffusion Filter attachment 
has been developed by the Mitchell 

Camera Company for use on their Filter 
holder. This attachment takes two vari- 
able diffusion filters of the came type, 
Continued on Page 1 16 

July 1933 • American Cinematographer 


U P TO the present time the biggest problem of all 
portable sound equipment has been a satisfactory 
motor system. It has even been a problem in small 
truck installations where storage battery and motor genera- 
tor weight is a serious problem. The prevalent system in 
use is the D.C. interlock type of motor, generating either 
in the regular D.C. winding or in an additional winding, an 
A.C. interlocking voltage. While this type of drive gives 
excellent results as far as locking the camera to the recorder 
is concerned, the big drawback still remains, manual con- 
trol of the speed. The customary procedure is the inser- 
tion of a line voltage control rheostat which, with any 
change of load on either the camera or recorder, introduces 
a corresponding change in the input voltage to the motors. 
This changes the speed of both camera and recorder, giving 
poor recording. A poorly loaded magazine, a bumpy take- 
up belt, or a number of other things can cause a momentary 
change in the load which may not be detected by the op- 
erator, since the tachometer itself has sufficient drag or 
inertia to remain steady on slight changes of speed. The 
results, however, show up as “wows” in music, giving a 
decidedly unpleasant effect. 

After a year of development and research, the Hollywood 
Motion Picture Equipment Co., Ltd., has perfected a motor 
which solves all manual control difficulties, the “Automatic 
Speed Control Motor.” While the idea is not new, it has 
never been successfully applied to a small D.C. interlocking 
motor. In principle, the recorder motor is varied by a me- 
chanical and electrical means in accordance with the power 
taken from the motor. Before releasing this new addition 
to the present high quality line of “ArtReeves” recording 
equipment, an experimental motor was built which has been 
in actual use for over six months. A number of pictures 
have been successfully made with it and the results are con- 
sidered amazing. On one picture the whole unit had to 
be brought up to speed and ready to record in not over three 
seconds because of the nature of the shots. With a man- 
ually controlled motor this is absolutely impossible, as any- 
one who has had to run a recording unit of this kind will 
testify. With the automatically controlled motor full source 
voltage is supplied to the motor until it reaches the con- 
trolled speed, and then the automatic control holds it there. 
Stroboscope tests have shown that with full load the re- 
corder comes up to speed in less than three feet of film 
and never overshoots. It stops right on 90 feet per min- 
ute, and will stay within less than one-half foot per minute 

Speed Control 



H. N. McNiff 

Chief Sound Engineer, H.M.P.E. Co., Ltd. 

of this mark through the entire change in load to which a 
recorder is subjected, namely, full magazine drag. In tests, 
it has been found impossible to change the speed appre- 
ciably by holding the magazine take-up belt stationary, 
which would be the equivalent of a buckle 

The power required to drive this new motor is no more 
than that required on a standard D.C. interlocking motor. 
It is rated at 1-12 H.P., but on dynamic brake tests has 
been found to deliver up to '/s H.P. without a serious re- 
duction in speed. These ratings are without considering 
the automatic control. With the latter the power output 
is increased to about 1 -6 H.P. before the speed is affected. 
When recording in a cold climate where the power re- 
quired to drive any machinery is greater than normal this 
reserve of power is appreciated by the sound engineer re- 
sponsible for results. Since the motor on a recorder is never 
run continuously for more than 1 1 minutes, heating is not 
a controlling factor in the performance of the motor and 
may be totally disregarded. With an “ArtReeves” recorder 
as shown in the illustration, the power consumed from the 
D.C. source is only about 50 watts under normal load. The 
customary method of supplying the D.C. is by heavy duty 
“B” batteries so connected that 135 volts is supplied to 
the motors. When using a camera with the recorder we use 
two sets of batteries in parallel for reasons of economy. 
While one set would run for around 10,000 feet of film, 

Continued on Page 114 

The new “ArtReeves” Speed Control D.C. Motor 
mounted on Recorder and Base. 

Getting Down to Brass 


simply hai/i no Equals! 

OMMON S E N S E dictates that 

there is a limit to how low truly 
fine 16 m/m movie equipment can 
be priced. On the other hand, it is 
a mistake to think that an extrava.' 
gant cash outlay is required for the 
best the market affords .... for 
Victor — the World’s Finest — is by 

C N^W All -feature FIVE $175 

5-Speed Model 3 $6752 

TURRET, FIVE SPEEDS and many other 
features, is decidedly the most complete 
of stock model 16 m/m cameras. It is 
the ultimate in Fine Craftsmanship and 
Precision Manufacture. Yet, it is PRICED 
far below the nearest competition . . . 
$175.00 with F 2.9 Focusing Triple 
Anastigmat Lens. 

The New 5 -Speed MODEL THREE has 

all of the mechanical perfection of the 
Model Five .... In addition to insur- 
ing the finest photography, it has every 
feature that the average movie maker 
wants. Beautifully finished in gold' 
flecked Lava Brown with Chrome Trim 
and equipped with the Triple Anastig- 
mat Dallmeyer F 2.9 Fixed Focus Lens, 
it has no equal at even twice its price. 


Victor Movie Equipment will insure you of greater satisfaction and 

finer results from your summer 
movie making. Your every de- 
sire and need (including Koda- 
COLOR) has been anticipated 
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DAT to arrange a demonstra' 
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•PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur 
picture is a part of the service offered by the 
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July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 99 



Contents . . . 

WHEN to Use Special Effects 

by Dewey Wrigley, A.S.C 100 

CORRECTING Exposure Faults 

by William Stull, A.S.C 101 

FILMING the Air Races 

by Norman de Vol, A.S.C 102 

WHAT I Learned from a Professional 

by Homer Matherson ., 103 

WHAT Is F.2, F.3.5, F.4? 

by Hartley Harrisno 104 

MAKiNG Tests with an 8mm 

by Robert Breeze. 1 06 


by A.S.C. Members 107 

AMATEUR News 108 

AMATEUR Contest Announcement 121 

Next Month . . . 

©AN UNUSUALLY interesting article by William Stull, A.S.C., on the 
widely growing use of 16mm negative ... its development and 

©DESCRIPTION of anofher interesting Semi-Professional 16mm Camera. 
Giving the amateur a wider latitude to approach the effects of the 
Hollywood Cameraman. 

©FINE Grain Development of the small negative. The wide popularity 
of the small negative camera has found a great growth amongst the 
Amateur Cine Filmer. 

©JOSEPH WALKER, A.S.C. tells the amateur how to make under water 
shots. Mr. Walker is famous in Hollywood for his ingenuity in getting 
the unusual. 

©MAKING an Industrial by an Amateur 16mm User. He tells how he 
turned the eye of the 16mm camera on his own business to fine 

©CONTINUITY will be discussed, giving you the importance that the 
professional picture makers put on this phase of picture making. 

©HERE'S HOW . . . will be more interesting than ever. Many ques- 
tions wait in our files for next month’s issue. 


American Cinematographer • July 1933 

The thumb is resting on the adjustable 
shutter control of the new Eastman Cine 
Kodak. The shutter adjustment permits the 
making of fades and lap-dissolves. 

When To Use 

Special Effects 
-and How 


Dewey Wri'gley, A.S.C. 

P ROFESSIONALLY speaking, the term “special effects” 
covers a multitude of scenes. As used in the studios 
today, any type of photography other than the regu- 
lar run-of-the-mill work done on the set is classified under 
this heading: “Special Effects” photography may be any- 
thing from a simple lap-dissolve or “wipe” to intricate mul- 
tiple-exposure, process or miniature work. For the non- 
professional cinematographer, however, the wide range of 
special effects is naturally more limited; for the purpose 
of this discussion we may as well consider it to embrace 
only fades, lap-dissolves, wipes and the simpler types of 
double exposure. Even these have been, until recently, all 
but impossible to the average 16 mm. user, for the cameras 
available have been designed more for the beginner than 
for the advancd worker. Within the last sixty days, how- 
ever, Eastman has come forth with the remarkable Cine 
Kodak Special, and both Victor and Bell & Howell have an- 
nounced a new model incorporating a reverse-cranking 
feature, also there is the professional Berndt 16mm camera. 
Accordingly, 16mm. special effects have suddenly become 
objects of more than academic interest. 

Simplest of these effects is the ordinary “fade-out” (and 
its complement, the “fade-in”). While it is possible to 
make fades with an ordinary camera, the best results will 
be had with a camera which — like the new Eastman Special 
— embodies a variable shutter. A fade-out is easily made 
by slowly closing the shutter (while the camera keeps on 
running) at the end of a scene. With the new Eastman 

camera, this is done by slowly and smoothly moving the 
shutter-adjusting lever up to the “closed” position, at which 
point an automatic brake is applied, stopping the camera 
immediately. The fade-in is, of course, merely the reverse 
of this process. When using cameras not equipped with 
adjustable shutters, fades can be made by closing down 
the lens; but since most of us use SuperSensitive film all 
the time — and few cine lenses will close beyond f:16 — this 
necessitates the use of an extremely heavy neutral-density 
filter or its equivalent, and the results are not so satisfactory. 

The lap-dissolve (known as a “blend” in Europe, and as 
a mix in England) is simply a fade-in superimposed on a 
fade-out, so that as one scene fades out, the next fades in 
on top of it. This is done, of course, by first making a 
fade-out in the usual manner, then winding the film back 
(with the shutter closed or the lens capped) to the start 
of the fade-out, and fading in from that point. This is 
easy with the new C.K. Special, which is equipped with an 
accurate footage-meter, which runs forward and backward; 
the best practice is to start your fades just as the meter has 
turned from one foot to the next. The length of a lap- 
dissolve can be suited to the requirements of the scene in 
hand; the average professional lap runs from four to eight 
feet, but some — as in Joseph von Sternberg’s “Dishonored” 
— have been known to run a hundred feet or more. For 
16 mm. use I would recommend making lap-dissolves from 
two to three feet as a rule. It takes a bit of practice to be 
able to manage this dissolving shutter smoothly, and if one 
is going to make many of them, an extension-arm on the 
shutter-control lever would be a distinct advantage. A use- 
ful little trick practiced by most professionals is to let your 
lap-dissolve overlap a bit; that is, when you rewind after 
making the fadeout, wind six or eight inches beyond the 
point where the fade-out started, and start your fade-in 
there. This of, course, makes your incoming scene start 
fading in a moment or so before the other begins to fade 
out, and brings it entirely in before the first scene is en- 
tirely out. In oither words, this trick makes your lap a 
trifle longer, and very much smoother. 

If you saw the Cine Kodak Special demonstration-reel, 
you will remember one shot in which the use of the oval 
matte was shown, with the matte very slowly fading in over 
the unmatted shot. This, of course, was done by making 
the lap-dissolve unusually long, with the fade-out part quite 
a bit longer than the fade-in part, and overlapping the lat- 
ter very considerably. 

Wipe-offs don t differ materially from fades, excepting 
that they are made by some sort of a blade moving in front 
of the lens. Since they were very expertly described in the 
February issue of this magazine by Frank B. Good, A.S.C., 
there is no deed for me to bore you with further descriptions 
of them, except, perhaps, mention that the reverse-crank 
and accurate footage-counter of the new Eastman facilitate 
them tremendously. 

There is another type of trick transition, lately used pro- 
fessionally, which furnishes an interesting gag for the ama- 
teur — an d which, incidentally, is surprisingly easy with the 
new camera. On the screen, instead of fading, lapping or 
the like, this transition gives the effect of the incoming 
scene putting itself together like a jig-saw puzzle. Here’s 
one way to do it. Begin by making the second scene first. 
Then, make a still enlargement of the first frame of this 
scene; have it mounted and cut as a jig-saw puzzle (with 
not too many pieces). Then go ahead and make your first 
scene, fading it out slowly, and winding back in the usual 
manner, just as though you were going to make a lap. Now 
take your camera indoors, and line it up with the lens 
pointed straight down on a black board, and so that it will 
exactly cover the area of your jig-saw enlargement. Then 
with the camera set for single-frame work, and, of course, 
the proper lights and so on, build up your puzzle, piece by 

Continued on Page 121 

July 1933 • American Cinematographer 101 

Exposure Faults 

-in the 
Dark Room 


William Stull,A.S.C. 

T IS unfortunate, in a way, that the laboratories and 
methods of the processors of 1 6 mm. film are so per- 
fect, for this perfection not only gives most of us little 
incentive to delve into the fascinating realm of laboratory- 
work, but also gives us a feeling that if our errors in expos- 
ure are greater than the leeway provided by the latitude of 
modern 16 mm. film and the extensive control of the auto- 
matic processing-machinery, our badly-exposed scenes are 
beyond redemption. Sometimes this is all too true, of course; 
but not invariably. 

If you entered cinematography by way of still-photogra- 
phy, you probably realize, without being told, that certain 
chemicals will build up, or “intensify” a weak image, while 
others will lighten, or “reduce” an over-dark one. Both of 
these processes can be carried out in daylight — and they are 
quite as feasible with cine film as they are with the plates 
and films of the still-photographer. Moreover, the better 
16 mm. processing plants (especially those of Eastman and 
Agfa) are fully able to reduce or intensify 16 mm. films; 
sometimes they do this as a part of the regular processing, 
in cases where their own work has for some reason been 
faulty, or in cases where it is obvious that such modifica- 
tion would be of great benefit to the film. In any event, 
they will reduce or intensify over-or under-exposures on 
special orders, at a nominal charge. But it is so easy to do 
this yourself, and so interesting, that many cinematographers 
will, I am sure, find it worth their while to try their own 
hands at it. 

If you’ve had experience in intensifying and reducing still 
negatives, you will know something of the action of these 
solutions; but you will have to remember that, in working 
with reversal film you are actually working upon a positive; 
and where you intensify an underexposed still negative, you 
must reduce a reversal-film; and where you reduce an over- 
exposed still negative, you must intensify the reversal-print. 
On the other hand, of course, if you are using the negative- 
positive system, you can intensify and reduce the negative 
exactly as you would if it were a “still” — and forget about 
the print. In working with reversal film, there is also an- 
other important factor, which must be remembered: some 
reducing and intensifying agents tend to color the emulsion; 
and while this is really an advantage in still or negative 
work, it is a serious disadvantage in working with reversal 
film, which must be projected. Accordingly, the most satis- 
factory solutions to use are those which do not alter the 
coloring of the silver deposits that form the image. 


As Crabtree and Muehler have 
pointed out (Journal of the S.M. 
P.E., Vol. XVII, No. 6, P. 1003 et 
seq.) intensifiers may be classified 
according to their chemical action, 
under four headings: 

1. The silver image is alloyed 
with mercury. 

2. A neutral or colored com- 
pound is deposited on the 
silver image. 

3. The silver image is more or 
less replaced by a colored 
compound of silver, a colored 
compound of another metal, 
or by a dye. 

4. Metallic silver is deposited 
on the silver grains. 

For treating reversal film, which 
must be projected. Nos. 1 and 4 
are probably the most successful. 
A very satisfactory formula for a 
mercury intensifier is the Eastman 
ln-1 formula, a modification of the 
well-known Monckhoven’s Intensi- 
fier. This solution is: 

Mercury Intensifier ( I n - 1 ) 

Mercuric Chloride 3 oz. 

Potassium Bromide 3 oz. 

Water to make 1 gallon 

The film is bleached completely in 
this solution, washed for 5 minutes, 
and re-developed in either the 
Eastman D-16 formula or any regu- 
lar MQ developer, washed and 
dried in the usual manner. This 
formula is especially good for pur- 
poses in which a high degree of 
contrast is desirable, and may be 

Continued on Page 109 

An enlarged strip of 
16 mm. film. The up- 
per portion is of over- 
exposed film before 
being intensified 
which is shown in 
bottom half of illus- 

The equipment necessary for this work is essentially the 
same as that recommended for tinting and toning in an 
article on those processes in the May issue of “THE 
RAPHER.” It can be extremely 
simple, whether a capacity of five 
or ten feet of film at a time is de- 
sired, or if larger quantities are to 
be treated. Some methods of in- 
tensification and reduction call for 
three or more solutions, and all of 
them require at least two and a 
wash; but this, of course, is merely 
a matter of providing sufficient 
trays or tanks. 

Intensification is probably the 
more satisfactory of the two, as — 
due to the nature of the reversal 
process — it has the greater oppor- 
tunity to produce results. Neither 
process will, however, produce de- 
tail that is not at least latent in 
the original film. 

102 American Cinematographer • July 1933 

Filming The 
National Air 


Norman de Vol. A. S. C. 

T HE grandstand at the Los Angeles Municipal Airport, 
where the National Air Races will be flown the first 
four days of July, this year is at the south side of the 
field, facing north. That means an even front and side 
lighting. Sixty feet in front of these stands will be a strong 
wire fence, beyond which nobody will be allowed. Just 
across this fence will be the pits — stalls for the contesting 
planes. One thousand feet straight out from the grand- 
stand, in the middle of the field, will be the home pylon, 
around which the racing planes will turn, and which marks 
the start and finish of the races. The race-course will be 
behind the stands, so that the ships will come past the ends 
of the stands to turn around the pylon, yet never be head- 
ing into the crowd — a very important safety precaution. 

The sixty-foot parking between the stands and the fence, 
for instance, as well as the construction of the fence itself, 
gives the amateur a great deal of leeway in selecting his 
set-ups; and the occupants of the grandstands are free to 
come and go in this space in the sections lying in front of 
their seats. Placing the pits just in front of the fence, too, 
gives the photographer an opportunity to make closeups of 
of the various planes, and candid-camera shots of the famous 
pilots, without being either in the way or in danger of de- 
capitation from an unnoticed propellor. 

Filters will depend on the immediate conditions: with 
semi-chromatic or Ortho films filters don’t cut much ice; 
with either type of Pan you’ll get the best results with the 
Aero 2 filter or — if there are clouds — the 23-A. In a pinch 
you can use a K-2 or K-3; but the best all-around filter 
will undoubtedly be the Aero 2. The exact choice, of course, 
will have to depend on the effect you want to get; whether 
you want to have the ships dark against a light sky, or vice- 

Your best bet will probably be a two-inch lens; you don’t 
want to get too close to the racing planes, for then the 
matter of following their movement becomes rather compli- 
cated; so a two-inch will take care of most of your needs, 
and a regular one-inch, held in reserve, will be useful for 
closer shots, such as scenes of the ships in the pits, etc. And 
the two-inch (or even a three, if you have a turret camera) 
will give you some surprisingly good candid-camera closeups 
of the different aces when they are in the pits. 

By all means use a tripod; of course, it means more bulk 
to lug around — but it’s the only sure way of getting your 
horizon level in the fast shots of the races. And you've got 
to have your camera level if you want your pictures to be 
really good. 

There are four days of races, and I would suggest plan- 
ning to use at least 200 feet of film per day; more will be 
better, if you can afford it, for it will give you leeway for 
N.C.’d shots and unexpected action. 

A fine background for your main title would be a head-on 
shot of an airplane with a steel propellor “ticking over,’’ 
underexposed or filtered down so that it will be very dark, 
with just the highlights here and there winking on and off 
as the metal prop revolves. 

There will be Army, Navy and Marine Corps demonstra- 
tions of fighting, attack (ground-strafing) , bombing, smoke- 
screens, etc., which will be extremely worth shooting. There 
will be daily exhibitions of stunting by a trio of Hollywood’s 
leading film-stunt-fliers and by several of Europe’s foremost 
aces, which will demand your attention. There will be the 
finish of the Bendix Trophy race from New York, and of 
course the Thompson Trophy race for men, and the Aerol 
Trophy race for women, in both of which the greatest of 
fliers will participate, and in which speeds of about 300 
m.p.h. will be seen. There will also be attacks on the 
world’s land-plane speed record for men and women, with 
still higher speeds certain. On “Movie Day,” a number of 
the flying stars of Hollywood — Lt. Ben Lyon, Lt. -Com- 
mander Wallace Beery, Ken Maynard, Hoot Gibson, Sally 
Eilers, Ann Harding, Howard Hughes, Henry King, Bert Glen- 
non, Hal Mohr, A.S.C., Clarence Brown, Douglas Shearer, 
A.S.C.; Elmer Dyer, A.S.C., and other flying picture-celebri- 
ties will participate. At night, for the benefit of those with 
fast lenses and SuperSensitive film, there will also be night 
flying, stunting with illuminated planes, and the like. 

It would suggest that you merely study the first day’s 
races through your finder, as most of them will be repeated 
later, and the practice will be more valuable than the film 
— though if any crashes occur, you might do well to catch 
them. (As the races are getting better organized each year, 
crashes are becoming fewer and fewer.) The first events 
that you should get will be the arrival of the Army and Navy 
squadrons, which should be spectacular, with the many 
squadrons arriving in formation and landing. Next will 
come the attack on the world’s speed record for women. 
This will probably call for the one-inch lens, as the tiny 

Continued on Page 116 

July 1933 • American Cinematographer 103 

L. Cuy Wilky, A.S.C., explains some of the basic 
principals of exposure to the author. 

What I 

Learned From 
A Professions 


Homer Matherson 


T’S the simple things that count. That at least is my 
impression after talking to L. Cuy Wilky, A.S.C., whom 
I met on the boat crossing the Pacific. 

He was coming back from Ceylon. The first question I 
popped at him was what is the normal exposure in Ceylon, 
down there in the tropics. 

He never told me. And I did not realize it until right 
now, although we talked photography and cinematography 
for several days. I have the impression from his talk with 
me, that he, as well as most of the leading cinematographers 
received their first training and knowledge from the still 

The most interesting discussion centered around the ex- 
posure guide on my camera. He first translated this from 
the still camera standpoint into aperture and time, showing 
me the equivalents of the various apertures in their relation 
to time. He laid it out for me as follows: 

Seconds 1-5 1-10 1-25 1-50 1-100 1-200 

Aperature F.16 11 8 5.6 4.0 3.5 

and explained that all of these were equal. The results, so 
far as quality of negative was concerned, would be the 
same, excepting, of course, where we use the smallest stop 
there is a greater depth of focus. 

From here we took the 16-picture per second interpre- 
tation. My camera has a 205-degree shutter, which gives 
approximately a 1 -28 second exposure. In view of the fact 
that it is not adjustable, as is the professional camera, there 
could nothing be done with changing the time from the 
shutter standpoint, so when pictures were being taken at 
I 6 frames per second the only thing I would have recourse 
to for different lighting conditions was the lens iself. 

This, however, did give me a fine conception of the 
values when taking slow motion pictures. I realized from 
this description that if I were to take pictures at 32 per 
second I would have to open one more stop — the same as 
though I were shooting a still camera, and increased the 
speed from a normal of 1-50 of a second at f.5.6 to 1-100 
of a second I would have to open the lens to 4.0. 

He pointed out that the mathematician would prove that 
the stops as he indicated were not exactly again as fast, 
but for all purposes, and because of the latitude of the re- 
versible film, they would serve admirably. They were the 
stops as indicated on the camera and the lens manufac- 
turers have made these markings to indicate as closely as 
possible with standard readings the next largest or smallest 

The more I studied this over the more basic I realized 
this simple information was. It was something that I had 
accepted, but had not really classified in my mind. 

In the discussion I realized that in the use of filters, if 
I knew the factor, it was simple to figure out the correct 
stop. Here s how it worked out. I must first find my nor- 
mal exposure and square that. Let’s say the normal is 
F.l 1. Multiplying the figure by itself gives you the square 
of that figure, so 11x11 would equal 121. Let’s say the 
factor I am using is 6. I then divide the square of the 
stop by the factor, which gives me 121 divided by 6, giv- 
ing me as an answer approximately 20. The next step is 
to find that root of that number. We know the root of 
any number is that number which multiplied by itself will 
equal the number. In other words, the root of twenty is 
the number which, multiplied by itself, will equal 20. This 
number would be approximately 4.2, which would be the 
lens reading. I familiarized myself with this formula by 
taking the various stops and different factors and working 
them out until that formula is firmly entrenched in my mind. 

I have read it many times, but it always sounded so con- 
fused to me. I am wondering if in the simple way I have 
told it, it is still confusing to some. 

He also showed me how to find the speed of one stop 
over another. This requires a bit more “square rooting” and 
quite as simple. You divide the square root of the smallest 
stop by the square root of the largest stop, and there is 
your answer. Let's say we want to find how much faster 
FI. 9 is than F3.5. We then multiply 3.5 by 3.5, which 
gives us 12.25. We then multiply 1.9x1. 9, which gives us 
3.61. We now divide 12.25 by 3.61 and we have the 
speed, which is about 3.4. This means that FI. 9 is approxi 
mately three and a half times faster than F3.5. 

I wondered how they determined their exposure in dif- 
ferent parts of the world as they traveled. Wilky told me 
that the usual method is to make a test going through vari- 
ous stops, developing that test and from that determining 
the correct normal stop. He stressed the importance of 

Continued on Page 113 

What Is 

F.2 F.3.5 F.4 ? 


Hartley Harrison 

Optical Engineer 

A S the photographer of today is getting farther and 
farther away from the box camera, we hear more 
^ and more the expressions such as shutter opening, 
depth of focus, the lens stops of F.2, F.3.5, etc., and when 
a certain picture is being discussed between fellow pho- 
tographers the stop used is always mentioned as a general 
way of indicating the exposure and telling the other fellow 
how it was done. 

FHowever, the surprising thing about the use of the ex- 
pression “lens stop” is the great variety of interpretations 
and meanings that it is intended to convey. And since the 
interpretations are too numerous to even attempt to explain, 
it might be well to refresh ourselves as to what F.2 or any 
other stop actually is, rather than what it is intended to 

If we look at the graph in Fig. 1 we see a number of 
lenses placed in a dotted angle. The lenses are of different 
focal length, which positions them a certain distance from 
the film and of a sufficient size to fill the angle in their 
respective positions, but all are marked with the same F. 
value. The dotted line is intended to show a cone of light 

104 American Cinematographer • July 1933 

and as you move further out into the cone you must neces- 
sarily have a larger lens to catch all the light in the cone, 
and unfortunately, as we increase the size of the lens, the 
curve is lessened and the focal length is increased, because 
the hemisphere, or half of a ball, is the greatest variable 
curve that can be made, and if we wish a larger lens we can 
only make one-half of a larger ball. But the reverse is also 
true in that the stronger the curve the closer the lens must 
be to the film, and the further down in the cone its posi- 
tion is. The diameter of each lens is marked and also the 
focal length, and as we have chosen simple combinations it 
can readily be seen that if the focal length of the lens is 
divided by its diameter the result will be 2. in all of them, 
which in this particular illustration are the F. values. And 
that is exactly what the F. value means. 

Instead of saying that the focal length is, let us say 6 
inches, and the diameter or aperture is 3 inches, and letting 
the other fellow figure out whether that would be a large 
or a small opening for that focal length lens, it is just pre- 
figured by the lens manufacturer and stated as the F. value. 
Obviously, if the free aperture or diameter is diminished and 
then divided into the focal length the F. value will be higher, 
also the amount of light which can enter the lens will be less. 

But let me repeat, the F. value indicates aperture rela- 
tive to focal length, and nothing else, and it is not an indi- 
cation of the amount of light or exposure that the lens will 
give except as one stop is relative to another stop on the 
same lens. For instance, a lens set at F.2 will give four 
times as much light as the same lens set at F.4, but that 
in no way is an indication of how much light the lens gives 
at F.2, or how much exposure on the film; it only means 
that at F.2 there is four times the light that there was at 
F.4, whatever that amount was. 

Practically all the lens manufacturers mark the lens stop 
so that each stop cuts the light in half from the preceding 
stop, such as an F.4 lens which is wide open will have the 
next stop at F.5.6, and the next one at F.8, and so on; 
F.5.6 being half the area of F.4 and F.8 being half the area 
of F.5.6. Obviously, if the area is cut in half the light will 
be cut in half also. 

Although the graph shows only simple piano convex lenses, 
the rule is the same for corrected lenses, and the number 
of lens elements used is immaterial, except that sometimes 
it is a little more difficult to measure the free aperture. 
However, the additional elements decrease the transmission 
of the lens over a simple lens and the transmission varies 
from 90% for a simple lens to as low as 38% for some 
of the corrected lenses, depending upon the number of ele- 
ments, the type of glass, the lens curve, and whether they 
are cemented, or glass-to-air. 

This variation in transmission is present in practically ev- 
ery different type of lens combination, so that an F.2 lens 
of one optical combination will not necessarily have the 
same tranmission as another F.2 lens of a different combina- 
tion. In fact, there has been such extreme differences in 
transmission of lenses that have been put on the market, as 
only 38% transmission for an F. 1.5 lens and 62% trans- 
mission for an F.4 lens, that merely comparing lens speeds 
by their F. value is sometimes very misleading. 

And it has been suggested that photographic lenses be 
marked as to their transmissions and in that way definitely 
couple the stops with the lens’ speed. For instance, suppose 
an F.2 lens has a transmission of 50% of the incident light, 
when the lenses are wide open and set at F.2. At F.4 the 
light will be one-fourth of 50%, or approximately one- 
eighth of the incident light, and by measuring the incident 
light we can definitely ascertain how much of the incident 
light is actually being impinged upon the film with every 

Continued on Page 1 12 

July 1933 0 American Cinematographer 105 

Master of Movie Miracles/ 




An example of a 
double exposure shot, 
easy to make with the 
Special. One expo- 
sure of the girl and 
room — wind back — 
another exposure of 
the man against a 
dark background. 
That's all there is to it. 
Too, with the variable 
shutter, he can be 
made to fade in, then 
fade out. 

A professional-type cam- 
era using 16 mm. film 

Unequalled among 1 6 mm. 
cameras in ability, Cine-Kodak Spe- 
cial ignores the restrictions of 
ordinary movie making technique. 
It creates wholly new opportunities 
for movie clubs, doctors, scientists, 
engineers . . . challenges even the 
highest movie making ambitions . . . 
opens the bag of Hollywood tricks. 

Double exposures . . . dissolves . . . 
fades . . . slow motion . . . animation 
. . . mask shots . . . are all a part of 
the Special’s repertoire. 

The standard model of Cine-Kodak 

Special is equipped with a Kodak 
Anastigmat /. 1.9 lens, double lens 
turret, one ioo-foot film chamber, a 
set of six masks. Cost, thus equipped, 
$375. Despite its unparalleled ver- 
satility — so varied are the uses to 
which the Special will be put that 
occasional minor alterations or spe- 
cial accessories may be necessary. 
Inquiries relative to such work 
should be forwarded by your dealer 
to the Eastman Kodak Company for 
advice and estimate. 


A copy of the Cine-Kodak Special 
book will be mailed to you free upon 
request. Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester, New York. 


The reflex finder shows on a 
ground-glass screen the field of 
the taking lens — permits visual 
focusing with all lenses. 

The Special’s exclusive vari- 
able shutter makes fades and lap 
dissolves easy and certain — 
gives extra exposure control. 

The eight- and one-frame 
hand crank shafts have many 
uses — among them winding back 
for dissolves, double exposures. 


Interchangeable 100-foot and 
200-foot film chambers enable 
you to switch from one film to 
anotheri n a few seconds. 

106 American Cinematographer 0 July 1933 

Making Tests 
With an 8 mm. 


Robert Breeze 


I FUSSED around for several weeks trying to cheat the 
manufacturer of the 8 mm. camera. I wanted to enjoy 
the enonomy of the 8 mm. in some tests, but I didn’t 
want to invest in an outfit. But today I own one. 

But let me tell you of some of the fun I had trying to 
make an 8 mm. out of a 1 6 mm. I cut a mask exposing 
just one-quarter of the aperature of the 16 mm. I placed 
this right in front of the aperature; how I did it is too long 
a story and not worth the effort. I ran the film through 
once, then without rewinding ran it through again. Then 
I changed the mask to the other side, ran the film through 
again and then without rewinding ran it through the fourth 
time. I had to go through all of this bother again on the 
projector. It was fun figuring it out, but a nuisance doing 
it. So I bought an 8 mm. camera. 

Since I have it, it strikes me that cameras are getting like 
automobiles. It is not a happy home unless you have two 
in the family. When I am not using it for testing, my wife 
uses it; in fact, she has appropriated the camera as her 
own, and it is now known as “her” camera. 

However, the real value I have found in it is that when 
I am going to undertake a serious bit of cinefilming, some- 
thing about which I want to be dead sure, I will usually 
take it first in 8 mm, at least those phases of it about 
which I feel a bit uncertain. This permits me to do some 

testing with economy. Gives me a confidence in the work 
with the 16 mm. that I would not have otherwise. 

You can do practically everything with an 8 mm. camera 
that you can accomplish with a 16 mm. so far as straight 
shooting is concerned, and that is what most of us are doing. 

If I am going to do a picture that has a bit of continuity 
in it and my family is acting as the cast, I usually shoot that 
picture first in 8 mm. I find my weaknesses and faults. 
Find how I can improve angles, where I can inject more 
close-ups and things like that, how to improve the close-up 
and other vital angles. It helps me tremendously in improv- 
ing technique in picture making. I do not feel so sensitive 
about shooting 8 mm. in this way; it doesn’t seem like an 
extravagance. In fact, I feel more extravagant shooting the 
16 mm. and getting poor results than I do in experimenting 
with the 8 mm. Possibly it is just psychological reaction, 
but there is something about shooting 16 mm. where one 
is a confirmed cine filmer that doesn’t permit us to throw 
it away or to look upon it merely as an experiment. 

I find, too, that it has helped me to educate my wife in 
the mysteries of photography that I did not seem able to 
do with the 16 mm. I suppose the 16 mm. to our minds 
is like using an expensive car to teach some novice how to 
drive. We would sooner use some old auto for this, feeling 
that the learner cannot harm it very much. 

I find that the 8 mm. is giving me an interest in new 
things. I do not hesitate to experiment a bit with it: Such 
as attempting to secure pictures of ants. Playing with the 
lens and a ground glass, turning it out as far as possible and 
placing a shim back of it so as to shorten its focal length. 

I have experimented in this fashion and then to secure a 
closer focus have contrived to mount a portrait lens in front 
of the regular 1-inch lens. 

In some instances I have secured pictures which I feel 
are a great deal better than some I have attempted in 16 
mm. This is not because of the equipment, but because 
of the freedom I have felt in taking them. 

I tried, in addition to turning the lens out and the por- 
trait lens in front of that, of also adding another glass . . . 
a reading glass. I got as close as 5 inches by this method. 
I know it will be possible to get up within 2 inches, but 
this was just my first experiment. I had not built shims 
for turning the lens out to its furthest point. But I did 
find with this addition of the reading glass that one must 
be mighty careful, as the addition of too many glasses is 
inclined to give you distortion on the least provocation. 

Don’t treat the 8 mm. with disdain. Excepting for the 
fact that it does not give as large a picture as the 16 mm., 
it has practically everything the average 16 mm. camera 
possesses. Give it the same attention . . . give it the same 
respect in the making of pictures and you will find some 
dandy surprises on the screen. In fact, if you let yourself 
go a bit in the use of it and try some of the things you have 
been wanting to experiment with . . . some of the things 
you would like to do if you had the nerve, you are going to 
convince yourself you are a great deal better photographer 
than you believe you are. 

I have tried imitating the professional with it. You 
know, shooting up at a tall building, getting that modern- 
istic angle. I jacked my car up at the rear, then made the 
wheels go around to cut in a close-up on a traveling scene. 

I wanted to see the best angle to shoot such a scene. I 
tried it at various angles with the 8 mm., something I 
wouldn’t have done with the 16. I found the right angle 
and then proceeded to register that scene in the 16 mm. 
picture I was making. I find the 8 mm. a handy possession. 


July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 

SILVERWARE. “In making close- 
ups of tableware in a picture I'm 
working on, I’ve had a great deal 
of trouble with unwanted reflections 
from the silver and glassware. How 
can these be prevented ?” 

H .P. K. . Denver. 

• In some instances, careful attention to 
lighting will be all that is required, but 
there are several simpler and quicker ex- 
pedients which will always work. 
Classes, goblets, and all hollow glass or 
silverware can be filled with ice or ice- 
water; when brought into a warm room, 
or under the heat of incandescent lights, 
this will cause the outer surface to be- 
come dewed, and non-reflective. Dabbing 
the surface with putty will also kill all 
reflections; this is done daily in the 


PURE ALCOHOL. “Several for- 
mulas I am working with specify 
alcohol, but I have been unable to 
get any which does not contain the 
Prohibition Dept.’s additions. Can 
any be obtained which is pure 
enough for photographic use?” 

R. V. J.. Cleveland. 

•You can get chemically pure alcohol 
from any chemical or bacteriological 
supply house by asking for Eagle metha- 
nol, Columbian methanol or spirits, or 
methyl alcohol, C.P. 


Living near the Navy's zeppelin 
base. I have an excellent opportun- 
ity to photograph the “Macon" and 
the other Naval dirigibles in the 
air. What film and filters should 
I use to get the best results? 

J. A. C.. Lakehurst . N . J. 

•Since the envelopes of these craft are 
doped with aluminum pigment, your 
problem is to darken the sky so that they 
will stand out boldly. I would therefore 
recommend a 23-A or even an F filter if 
you use Super-Sensitive film, or a C filter 
if you use regular Pan. In either case, 
hold your exposure down, and see to it 
that the ship is against clear blue sky, not 
a hazy, greenish-blue sky. Also, don’t 
try to get it against white clouds, though 
clouds are excellent in other parts of the 


by A. 5. C. Members 

Can You Answer These 

These questions were submitted 
by the Los Angeles store of the 
Eastman Koday Company at the 
June meeting of the Los Angeles 
Cinema Club giving prizes for those 
who could give the most correct 
answers in 8 minutes. Try your 
hand. Then see the correct 
answers on page 1 I 2. 

1 . How much more exposure does f 8 
stop give than f 16? (Check correct 
answer with X.) 

2X 5X 8X 4X 

2 . Does a 3 -inch lens working at f 8 
give as much exposure as a l-inch at 
f 8? 

Yes No 

3. How many times does a 6 -inch Tele- 
photo magnify over a normal 16 mm. 

ZX 4X 6X dX IZX 

4. In which direction should one pano- 

Left to right Right to left 

5 . Approximately what is the nearest 
correct exposure at which an Eastman 

Cine Kodak operates? 1/100 

1/10 1/5 1/32 

1/75 Bell & Howell, Model 

DA 1 100 1/10 

1/50 1/32 

6. How many frames per second does a 
16 mm. camera operate at normal 

24 16 32 64 

7. The correct stop is f 8. You will put 
on a 4 Filter. Where should you 

now set the diaphragm? F16 

FI l F5.6 F4.5 F 1 .9 

8. If f.8 is the stop to use at 16 
frames, what should you use at 64 

F16 Fll F4 

F3.5 F2.8 

9. What effect does a Red Filter have on 
the sky when using Panchromatic 

10. How many pictures are on a foot of 
16 mm. film? 

16 100 40 32 

1 1 . Approximately how long does 100 
ft. of 16mm. film run in minutes at 
normal speed ? 

2 3 4 5 6 

12. Over-exposure makes a dark or light 
(underline correct word) picture on 
16 mm. reversal film. 

13. Which gives the largest field — a 1- 

inch lens 2 -inch lens 6- 

inch lens 15mm. lens 

14. When using Regular Panchromatic 

Film the stop is f.8. What should 
you use with Super-Sensitive Pan- 
chromatic Film. F 

picture. The only time to silhouette such 
a ship against light clouds is when the 
clouds are in the sunlight and the ship 
in the shadow. 


FILTERS. What are the factors of 
the following filters with ordinary 
and superspeed Pan film: XI, G, 

23A, 56, 90, 3N5 and 5N5. Also 
of the combined 23 A and 56 for 
night effects? What are 90, 3N5 
and 5N5 used for? 

R. C. R., Calcutta. 

•The filter factors, as represented, are 
contained in the following table: 










Type 2 





Full aperture 








Full aperture 

The 72 filter is not recommended for 
use with Type Two and the use of the 
23A+56 combination is not recom- 
mended for Super-sensitive. The use of 
the 23A-|-56 combination with Type Two 
is to enable one to produce night effect 
scenes under sunlight conditions. The 
72 filter is made use of with Super-sensi- 
tive for this same purpose. These filters 
for night effect work, when used with 
the proper emulsion, should be used at 
apertures from f ,1 .9 to f 3.5, depending 
upon the light condition. 

The No. 90 filter is used as a viewing 
filter in that it reduces the visual effect 
obtained through it to a monochromatic 
value, thus enabling the eye to judge 
the lighting contrast nearly uneffected by 

The 3N5 filter is made up of the Aero 
1 and a neutral density of 0.50, trans- 
mission of 32%, while the 5N5 is made 
up of the Aero 2 with the same neutral 
density. These are single filters with 
the respective dyes of each incorporated 
in them. The purpose of these filters is 
to give the color correction effected by 
the Aero 1 and 2 respectively but at the 
same time causing a decrease of exposure 
due to the neutral filters, thus allowing 
the cinematographer to make his ex- 
posure at a relatively large lens aperture 
on exteriors. By so doing, the depth of 
focus is decreased and attention is cen- 
tralized on the object in focus. 

The XI and the 56 filters are both 
green and are not generally used for ex- 
terior cinematography. Their use is more 
applicable to commercial photography 
using panchromatic emulsions. 


108 American Cinematographer • July 1933 

Set used to demonstrate Eastman 
Cine Special at Cine Club meeting. 

Los Angeles Club Holds Unusually 
nteresting Meeting 

• Under the generalship of William Win- 
ter, manager of the Los Angeles East- 
man store, the June meeting of the Los 
Angeles Cine Club was given a program 
that was claimed by many to be the 
“ideal” meeting. 

The program was replete in every de- 
tail, with the new Eastman Cine Special 
being the center of interest. There were 
no long talks. Mr. Babb, general west- 
ern representative for the Eastman stores, 
spoke briefly on the history of the 1 6 
mm. camera from the time of its first 
being launched in a large way by East- 
man some years ago up to the develop- 
ment of the present 16 mm. Cine Special. 

A fine demonstrating reel was pro- 
jected, showing fades, lap-dissolves, 
wipe-offs and the other seeming miracles 
that this camera performs. A mighty 
fine Kodacolor was shown which was 
plainly seen on the large screen by that 
portion of the audience that was sitting 
approximately 100 feet from the screen. 

A professional make-up artist from 
the Max Factor Company was present to 
make up the girls who were used in a 
picture taken right there at the meeting. 
He explained the reason for making up 
the girls which acted as models. Ned 
VanBuren, A.S.C., set the lights for the 

Forbes Filming Bugs 
With Telephoto 

• Kenneth B. Forbes of Claremont, Cali- 
fornia, is getting close to earth with 

his camera. His effort is toward a pro- 
duction whose main characters will be 
the bugs of Southern California. Forbes 
is using a six-inch telephoto lens at- 
tached to a reflex prism finder. 

picture and then pictures of fades and 
dissolves were made which will be pre- 
sented at the next meeting of the Los 
Angeles Cine Club. 

For those clubs who wish the details 
of this program, a copy can be had by 
writing the editor of “THE AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER.” This meeting ran 
so smoothly and was so highly enjoyed 
that its success undoubtedly would be 
duplicated with other clubs. 

Putting Continuity in 
Birthday Picture 

• Birthday pictures just must be made. 

Just such events were the reason for 
developing the 16 mm. camera and film. 
Continuity, however, has been somewhat 
the bugaboo of the producer. W. Gaert- 
ner tells how he has solved this: 

“I have just completed a little sketch 
which covers six years of birthday films 
of my little girl. The film dates up to 
a few days before her seventh birthday. 
The opening scene is laid in the living 
room with her mother telling her to ad- 
dress the birthday invitations. From this 
I cut into addressing envelopes in daugh- 
ter’s own handwriting (which, of course, 
is very crude) ; mailing, bedroom scene 
on morning of birthday, children arriving, 
games on lawn. Suddenly mother calls 
to children: “Do you want to see the 
movies?” Children runnning projector — 
screen and room background with open- 
ing title of first birthday, with succeed- 
ing annual affairs. At end it fades to 
blowing out candles on cake. Close-up 
of each child at table leaving house, with 
final scene of daughter standing alone in 
close-up waving good-bye.” 

Prize Picture at Chicago 

® “Lullaby,” the picture which was given 
second prize in the American Cinema- 
tographer 1 932 contest, was selected by 
the Bell & Howell Company for showing 
in their exhibit at the Chicago Century 
of Progress. 

This picture has gained national fame 
through this contest because of its fine 
composition and photography. Schools 
in various parts of the United States have 
requested copies of this production to be 
placed in the school library for elementary 

The many clubs who have witnessed 
it, as well as the professionals to whom 
it has been shown, have showered it with 
great praise. 

Kansas City Club Views 

• At the last meeting of the Kansas City 
Cinema Club the main feature of the 
evening's entertainment was the third 
prize-winning picture in the 1932 Amer- 
ican Cinematographer Amateur Contest, 
“Lullaby,” which was made by Okamoto 
of Japan. 

This picture has been conceded by all 
of the clubs and those interested in 16 
mm. work who have viewed it, one of the 
finest subjects ever to have been photo- 
graphed with a 16 mm. camera. It is 
an outstanding work both from the pho- 
tographic and composition standpoint. 

Brackett Makes Novel 
Wipe-off Holder 

® C. E. Brackett, who is associated with 
the Hollywood branch of the Bell & 
Howell Company, has contrived a simple 
but effective wipe-off gadget for his 
70D Filmo. 

The illustration at bottom shows how 
he has fastened a piece of wood to the 
alignment gauge and at the front of that 
another piece in which he has cut grooves 
into which he fits a black cardboard. He 
has this groove marked at the point 
where the wipe-off starts and where it 
finishes. With the swivel arrangement 
he manages also to use these wipe-off 
effects from many different angles. 

July 1933 • American Cinematographer 109 

Correcting Exposure Faults 
in the Dark Room 

Continued from Page 101 

repeated if greater density and contrast 
are desired. To increase the contrast 
very greatly, when shadow-detail is not 
important, the following can be substi- 
tuted for the regular re-developer: 
Sodium or potassium cyanide. 2 oz. 

Silver nitrate 3 oz. 

Water to make I gallon 

Dissolve the cyanide and the silver ni- 
trate separately, then add the latter to 
the former until a permanent precipitate 
is just formed; allow the mixture to stand 
a short time, filter and use. This latter 
solution is deadly poisonous, and should 
be used with extreme care. 

As a simpler method, equally effica- 
cious, but better suited to the require- 
ments of the average man, I have found 
that the well-known “Victor” intensifier 
— which appears to be a variant of the 
Monckhoven formula — and the ordinary 
Eastman MQ ready-mixed developer are 
excellent. The illustration was produced 
by this method. I found that, on the 
average, an immersion of from two to six 
minutes in the bleaching solution pro- 
duced as high a degree of intensification 
as is normally necessary, with an average 
of perhaps 2!/2 minutes for most scenes. 
Re-development takes about five min- 
utes; and don’t fall into the mistake of 

removing the film from the developer too 
soon, or you will lose in the effect you 
wish, and also leave some trace of color 
on the film. When used with certain of 
the semi-chromatic reversal films, the 
Monckhoven intensifier has a tendency 
to increase the natural purplish-brown 
tone of the film, considerably, though by 
no means objectionably. As some of these 
films do not use a fixing-bath after the 
second development, it is also wise to fix 
the film thoroughly before intensifying. 
The results obtained by this process are 
really surprising; some of my tests hav- 
ing salvaged scenes so badly over-ex- 
posed as to be quite worthless otherwise. 

It may also be observed that certain 
of the toning solutions referred to in the 
article on the subject in the May issue 
also have a certain intensifying effect — 
especially the “Tabloid” Blue and Sepia 
toners; of course, they also color the 
image, as well as intensify it. 

Certain of the commercial Chromium 
intensifiers are also useful, though they 
have a greater or less colorative action, 
as well. The Eastman ln-4a is an ex- 
cellent formula for this type of intensi- 

The most nearly ideal solution, how- 
ever, is the silver intensifier, which is ex- 
tremely powerful (Crabtree and Muehler 
report having achieved an intensification 
of 140% by repeated applications), 
gives an absolutely neutral image, and 

assures lasting results. An excellent form- 
ula for such an intensifier is: 

Silver Intensifier (ln-5) 

Stock Solution No. 1 

Silver Nitrate 2 oz. 

Water to make 32 oz. 

Stock Solution No. 2 
Sodium Sulfite (dessicated ) .... 2 oz. 

Water to make 32 oz. 

Stock Solution No. 3 
Sodium Thiosulfate (crystal ) 3 Vi oz. 

Water to make 32 oz. 

Stock Solution No. 4 
Sodium Sulfite (dessicated) 219 grs. 

Elon 351 grs. 

Water to make 96 ozs. 

The intensifier is prepared as follows: 
Slowly adding one part of solution No. 2 
to one part of solution No. 1, stirring to 
obtain thorough mixing. The white pre- 
cipitate which appears is then dissolved 
by the addition of 1 part of solution No. 
3. Allow the resulting solution to stand 
for a few minutes until clear. Then add, 
with stirring, 3 parts of solution No. 4. 
The intensifier is then ready for use and 
the film should be treated immediately. 
The time of intensifying averages be- 
tween 10 and 25 minutes, but should 
not exceed the latter figure. After in- 
tensification, the film should be im- 
mersed in a plain 30% hypo solution and 
then washed thoroughly. The life of this 
solution averages from 30 to 45 min- 
utes, after which a precipitate of silver 

You’ll never buy it again at this price! 

The World Famous 


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las many features found only in cameras of much 

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1)0 American Cinematographer • July 1933 


• 1000 ft. magazines optional 

e 400 ft. magazines, regular equip- 

• 200 ft. magiz : nes optional 

• Veeder-Root footage counter 

• Mask slot, and reverse take-up 
o One frame and 8 frame crank 

• Coerz Variable view finder 

• Focus-on-film, 1 OX magnification, 

upright image 

o Four lens turret, standard lens 

• Variable shutter for fades and 


• Side tension aperture 

• Silent Cam movement 

Special equipment designed and 


112 East 73rd Street 


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Widely used by discriminating pro- 
fessional and amateur cinematographers, 
the high quality and performance of 
Coerz Lenses are factors in the creation 
of their constantly growing popularity. 

mended, at this time, as the ideal 
means for perpetuating the lazy cloud 
effects of summer and the gentle 
modulation of tones and semi-tones on 
the hill-sides and in the valleys. 

Booklet AC7 on requpst 


317 East 34th Street New York 




Try this 
priced film. 
You will be 
satisfied with 
the results and 
the s a v i n g s you 
achieve. No. 1, 100 ft., in 
green box, $3.00; No. 2, 100 ft., 
in red box, $3.50. 

Prices include Processing, Scratch- 
Proofing and Return Postage. 

KIN-O-LUX, Inc. 

105 West 4Cth St. New York 

forms in the solution and tends to de- 
posit on the highlights and produce fog, 
so a fresh solution should be compounded 
for every batch of film treated. If one 
application of this treatment is not suffi- 
cient, it can be repeated a number of 


With reversal film, reduction is not 
nearly so effective as intensification, for 
while a reducer can — and will — lighten 
an over-dark film, it cannot produce de- 
tail which is not already in the film. 
Therefore, while one can get amazing re- 
sults in intensifying over-exposed films, 
one can only expect good results from 
reducing films which have been mildly 
under-exposed. Like intensifiers, reduc- 
ers can be classified in several groups, ac- 
cording to their action; but for use with 
reversal film, only one type — that known 
as a Super-proportional” reducing agent 
— appears to me to be satisfactory. Such 
a reducer attacks the heavier deposits of 
the shadows more powerfully than it does 
the highlights, and naturally lightens the 
dark places (reveaiing any hitherto un- 
seen detail which may be in the film), 
while leaving the highlights relatively un- 
affected. Crabtree and Muehler recom- 
mend the following as an excellent super- 
proportional reducer: 

Ammonium Persulfate Reducer (R-l) 

Stock Solution 

Water 3 cc 

Ammonium Persulfate 1 liter 

Sulfuric Acid (cone.) 60 grams 

Water to make ...500 cc. 

For use, take one part of this stock so- 
lution and two parts of water; when re- 
duction is complete, immerse the film in 
an acid fixing-bath for a few minutes, 
wash and dry. 

An excellent commercial ammonium 
persulfate reducer is the "Tabloid” so- 
lution, marketed by the Burroughs-Well- 
come Co. This requires treatment of the 
film in a solution of sodium sulfite after 
reduction, and thereafter immersion in a 
regular acid hypo bath, and the inevitable 
wash and drying. 


Before either reduction or intensifica- 
tion (especially the latter) it is advisable 
to treat the film for five minutes with 
the following hardening solution: 

Formalin Hardener (SH-1) 

Water ...64 ozs. 

Commercial Formalin 

( 40 % ) 1 1 /3 ozs. 

Sodium Carbonate 

(dessicated) 2/3 oz. 

Water to make 1 gallon 

The films should then be rinsed and 
immersed in a fresh acid fixing-bath for 
five minutes and well washed to insure 
freedom from silver compounds and hypo. 

for 16mm Silent Films 

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The quality of a Reversible Stock 
is reflected in the duplicates it will 
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duplicate than was contained in the 
original. For extra prints of your 
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Agfa Reversible Panchromatic Safety 

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Ask Your Dealer 


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Agfa Ansco Corporation, 223 W. 
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Binghamton, N. Y., U. S. A. 

July 1933 0 American Cinematographer 111 

Sensitometric Control in the 
Processing of Motion 
Picture Film 

Continued from Page 88 

is derived from the H and D curve, such 
as is shown in Fig. 4. That portion of 
the curve with which we are interested 
in the determination of latitude is the 
straight line portion. If from the lim- 
its of the straight line perpendiculars 
are dropped to the log exposure axis, 
a simple determination can then be made 
of the exposure value where each of these 
perpendiculars hit the axis. The ratio 
between the two exposure values thus 
determined gives a measure of the lati- 
tude. Quite a little consideration is 
given to the latitude of an emulsion in 
the processing of sound records on film. 

A thorough appreciation of the impor- 
tance of latitude as it affects negative 
and positive picture has not been at- 


Fog is an important constant in that it 
gives definite information regarding the 
final results of the developed photo- 
graphic images. Fog may be considered 
as an actual density which has arisen 
from sources other than intentional ex- 
posure to light. It may be considered 
under two general headings, inherent fog 
and development fog. Inherent fog may 
be the result of certain of the silver 
grains being made developable by the 
chemical processes involved during the 
manufacture of the emulsion. It may 
also be due to slight exposure to light 
during some stage of the handling, either 

prior or subsequent to its final and in- 
tentional exposure. 

Development fog arises from such va- 
rious causes as the action of fogging 
agents or reaction products in the de- 
veloper, aerial oxidation, etc. Fog is not 
detectable until after development. From 
a purely practical standpoint no par- 
ticular attention is paid to fog unless it 
gets outside of accustomed grounds. For 
example, in the development of positive 
film a fog value of .03 to .05 is quite 
normal and unless fog builds up beyond 
this limit it is disregarded, other than to 
record it. However, excess fog, which 
is readily detectable visually, plays a det- 
rimental part in both picture and sound 
quality. Precaution is continually exer- 
cised to prevent fog of either the inher- 
ent or the development type. 

"Art Reeves" 


Speed Control Motor 


Phone — 

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112 American Cinematographer 9 July 1933 


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What Is F.2 F.3.5 F.4 F.56? 

Continued from Page 104 

stop setting. But that is getting away 
from the subject of what a definite stop 
actually means and there is one thing 
more that is very important, in the mean- 
ing of a definite stop; namely, a change 
in the character of the image with the 
change of stop. 

In any lens there is always a definite 
increase in depth of focus as the lens is 
stopped down, and therefore always has 
a definite meaning as to the quality of 
the picture; that is to say, an F.8 pic- 
ture always has a greater depth than an 
F.2 picture, regardless of the lens used. 

The reason for this is very simple. The 
Fig. 2 shows a simple 4-inch lens work- 
ing at F.2 wide open, the solid wide angle 
illustrates the lens focusing two peri- 
pheral rays of light on the film place and 
thereafter crossing the same angle at 
which they are coming from the lens. The 
two vertical solid lines that are drawn, 


1 — F8 gives 4 times as much ex- 
posure as F 1 6. 

2 — Theoretically all lenses at the 
same stop, regardless of focal 
length give the same exposure. 

3 — A six-inch lense gives a 6 
time magnification over a 1 
inch lense. 

4 — Panoram in the direction of 
the action. That is panoram 
with the action. 

5 — All cameras operate at a 
speed in the neighborhood of 
1/32" inch varying with the 
shutter opening. 

6 — 16 frames per second. 

7 — With a factor of four the 
closest opening is F4.5. 
You’ll find the formula for 
figuring this on the story in 
this issue under the title, 
“ What I Learned from a Pro- 

8 — The proper stop Would be 
F.4. This is equivalent to a 
factor of 4 . You have in- 
creased your speed 4 times. 

9 — A Red Filter will darken the 

10 — There are 40 pictures on a 
foot of 16mm film. 

11 — About 4 minutes. There be- 
ing 40 pictures to the foot 
and the speed being 1 6 pic- 
tures a second, it is a matter 
of multiplying 40x16 and 
dividing by 60 second to se- 
cure the minutes. 

12 — Overexposure makes a light 

13 — The 15 mm lense gives the 
largest field. 

14 — Use FI 6 the Supersensitive 
Film being faster. 

July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 113 

one on each side of the focusing point, 
form an arbitrary distance that will give 
a circle of confusion or blur one-eighth 
of an inch in size when the film is placed 
at either extreme position. Or, in other 
words, a lens working at F.2 would give 
a tolerance movement of one-half of an 
inch before creating a blur or circle of 
confusion greater than one-eighth of an 
inch. The second dotted line illustrates 
two central rays which should be the ex- 
treme rays if the lens were stopped down 
to F.4 and being at a much lower angle 
the tolerance movement is increased to 
one inch as shown by the two dotted 
vertical lines for an extreme movement 
of the film. Obviously, if there is a 
greater tolerance in the position of the 
film, there is the same tolerance when 
objects are at different distances because 
their crossing point will be closer or far- 
ther away than the focus setting. The 
other factors that enter into the defini- 
tion are so much less in importance that 
they can never over-balance the angle 

What I Learned from a 

Continued from Page 103 

this by his experience in Ceylon. While 
the light seems more intense down there, 
still the humidity filled the air with so 
much moisture that the light is filtered 
and it requires a larger opening than is 
used in California. However, he did give 
credence to the exposure meter by ad- 
vising that if one is traveling the best 
thing they could carry with them to se- 
cure good results would be a good ex- 
posure meter. 

The thing that interested me intensely 
was his talk on indoor lighting. From 
his remarks I gathered that it is the gen- 
eral practice of most professional cine- 
matographers to work their lenses wide 
open on sets. They reduce the light in 
preference to closing down the lenses, or 
they reduce their shutter aperture. The 
reason for this is that because of dra- 
matic action it is important to have the 
audience concentrate on the principal 
characters, and for this reason the back- 
ground is thrown out of focus. Also the 
wide open lens gives them a softer pho- 
tography, especially for close-ups, as 
the lens, especially of the fast type work- 
ing around f2.0, will help to soften the 
photography because of the imperfections 
in these fast lenses due to spherical and 
chromatic aberrations. 

I also learned that it is the habit of 
the professional to usually make close- 
ups, even outdoors, at a larger opening 
than usual. That is, they may open up 
two or three stops beyond normal and 
if necessary use a neutral density filter 
in order to secure this softness. Also 
with the negative positive method addi- 
tional control can be given to the nega- 

tive in the laboratory to further accentu- 
ate this softness. 

All in all, I believe those last few 
days talking photography to L. Cuy Wilky 
were the most profitable days I had on 
my entire trip. 

Clouner Heads Warner 
Camera Dept. 

• Charles Clouner, for many years head 
of the camera department for Universal 
Pictures, has been signed as Camera Ex- 
ecutive for Warner Bros. -First National. 
He succeeds Milton Cohen in the post. 

H.C.E. Sunshade and Filter 

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114 American Cinematographer £ July 1933 


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Filters $1.50 and up 

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Volume 1 

While They Last $2.50 
American Cinematographer 

6331 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 

Super Photofloods for the Studio 

Continued from Page 90 

The increase in intensity should prove 
doubly valuable, for it is another step 
towards the cinematographer’s ideal of 
gaining more natural effects through the 
use of fewer lighting units. This in- 
creased intensity should, too, result in 
more pleasing light-balances. One has 
often heard the plaint of cinematograph- 
ers, “Inkies are nice, but they don’t 
carry." The light of a Super-photoflood 
should have a marked improvement in 
this characteristic. Even in the cursory 
tests thus far made with these new units, 
a marked increase in carrying power is 
noticeable; shadows are softer and more 
natural, while the high-lights still retain 
a desirable softness and definition. 

For an understanding of these factors, 
we must again revert to the theoretical. 
The illustration shows comparative spec- 
troscopic curves of the standard 1 500- 
watt PS-52 bulb and the new Super- 
photoflood 2000-watt PS-52. It will at 
once be noticed that, aside from the gen- 
erally higher efficiency of the new bulb, 
the characteristics of the two bulbs in 
the invisible infra-red region are mark- 
edly different. The present type gains 
in efficiency as it penetrates farther and 
farther into this zone, while the Photo- 
flood’s curve begins a pronounced down- 
ward swing shortly after passing from the 
visible red to the invisible infra-red. In 
other words, the major part of the energy 
applied to the Photoflood is returned in 
the form of visible, useful light instead 
of (as is the case with the standard 
lamp) being wasted in the production of 
useless, invisible infra-red radiations. 

This brings to light another advantage 
of the new globe — one which is especially 
marked when used for natural-color cine- 
matography, of course, but notable in 
any case. It is well known that heat- 
rays and infra-red rays are, if not abso- 
lutely identical, very closely related; and 
that the farther one penetrates into the 
infra-red spectrum, the greater the 
amount of heat carried by the rays. The 
standard Mazda lamp, with its very con- 
siderable infra-red radiation, is, there- 
fore, quite as much of a heat-machine 
as it is a light-machine. The Photoflood, 
on the other hand, with its curtailed 
infra-red emanation, will diffuse mych 
less heat in proportion. One has, unfor- 
tunately, been as yet unable to make ac- 
curate measurements of this factor, but 
according to the General Electric engi- 
neers, and others, this should be in the 
neighborhood of one-half to one-third 
less than the heat-radiation of a com- 
parable standard Mazda lamp. This 
means, in practical terms, that everyone 
on the set — especially the actors, of 
course- — will be able to do their work 
better, with less fatigue; longer hours, 
when necessary, will be less tiring, and 

a normal working-day will produce bet- 
ter work from everyone, without levying 
so great a tax on the physical and ner- 
vous energy of the personnel on the set. 

When considered for their application 
to natural-color cinematography — and 
with the announcement of Technicolor’s 
three-color process, there is anticipated 
a definite increase in color-production — 
the Super-photoflood is doubly useful. Its 
greater overall intensity at once simpli- 
fies the problem of lighting for color; 
moreover, its increased blue-violet radia- 
tion is particularly adapted to the needs 
of all color-cinematographic processes. Its 
closer approximation of natural light sim- 
plifies the problems of the technicolorist, 
as it makes it possible to use the same 
camera successively on interiors and ex- 
teriors without alteration of the delicate 
beam-splitter filter-unit. And its great- 
ly reduced heat-radiation will undoubted- 
ly prove a blessing to the actors and 
others working on color sets, where the 
increased illumination hitherto demanded 
has brought with it super-tropical tem- 

Automatic Speed Control 

Continued from Page 97 
two sets in multiple will give service for 
40 to 60 thousand feet or more. Since 
the automatic control unit is a power 
change device the running down of the 
batteries has no effect on the speed of 
the motor and the voltage may drop as 
low as 110 volts before affecting the 

Thus you can see it will handle a volt- 
age change of from 20 to 30 volts suc- 

The simplicity of operation is an out- 
standing feature in the use of this motor 
system. Once the necessary preliminary 
adjustments have been made all that the 
operator has to do is to throw on the 
switches and the entire unit is ready to 
work in about three seconds. Waste 
starting footage is cut to a minimum. 

Because of the rather complicated 
necessary equipment which is included in 
the switching base, and because of the 
many tests to be made before releasing 
the motor to a customer, the latter is 
never sold separately but only completely 
mounted, wired, and tested on the re- 
corder base. 

Milner on Vacation 

• Victor Milner, A.S.C., having com- 
pleted Paramount’s “Song of Songs,” 
starring Marlene Dietrich, under the di- 
rection of Rouben Mamoulian, has been 
enjoying a well-earned vacation. His next 
assignment is reported to be Ernst Lu- 
bitch’s production of Noel Coward’s play, 
“Design for Living.” 

July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 115 


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4. Necessary cables and glow lamp ready for operation. 

5. Screw-lock, flush type cable connectors. 

6. Synchronous Recorder Motor for 50 or 60 cycle circuits. 

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Film Sound Recorders 
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Riddle Me This 

Continued from Page 94 

vidual sequence of this nature is a story 
in itself, it follows that the technique of 
filming each sequence will be different. 
Such sequences are, to my mind, rather 
like individual solos in an orchestral com- 
position when considered in relation to 
both the picture as a whole and to their 
individual parts. I believe that the cam- 
era’s function in such instances should 
be analogous to that of the conductor’s 
baton in conducting a symphony; not that 
the camera should be constantly on the 
move (although moving-shots have their 
definite place, as in every sequence) , but 
the camera should serve to co-ordinate 
the individual scenes with each other, 
and the sequence with the production as 
a whole. In ballets especially (though it 
is hardly less so in musical interludes) a 
thorough understanding of the visual 
/alues of the cinema is vital: a misplaced 
traveling-shot, close-up, or long-shot; 
lack of understanding of rythm, or light- 
ing, will ruin the best-planned action.” 

SALV ADORE POLITO, A.S.C., photogra- 
pher of ‘‘42nd Street,” ‘‘Gold-Diggers of 
1933,” etc.: 

“In the production of the filmed musi- 
cal-comedies and revues, such as we have 
been making lately, the function of the 
camera can be compared to a pair of 
opera-glasses in the hands of a member 
of a theatre-audience: properly used, 

they bring the spectator close to any in- 
teresting or important bits of business, 
allow one to admire the perfection of 
form of the dancers, members of the 
chorus, etc., and are laid- aside when 
spectacular or beautiful stage-pictures are 
to be viewed en masse. In my last two 
pictures, I have found that if close co- 
operation and understanding exists be- 
tween the dance-director and the cinema- 
tographer .the work of both is at once 
lightened and improved. Such a dance- 
director as Busby Berkeley, for instance, 
realizes the importance of this: therefore, 
we work together in the closest co-opera- 
tion. After rehearsing any number sev- 
eral times as a whole, we find that it is 
easy to break it down into its individual 
components. Then we prepare a special 
continuity, in which the thing is consid- 
ered from the cinematic viewpoint — as 
apart from either the dramatic, the musi- 
cal, the choreographic, or the purely pho- 
tographic, for the desired result must be 
a perfect combination of all four. Con- 
sidered in this light, it is easy to separate 
the routine into its components — stage- 
pictures and individual business. Once 
this is done, the cinematic technique dic- 
tates itself, just as does the technique of 
an ordinary dramatic sequence. We know 
that certain things must be brought close 
to the spectator; that other things are 
more effective when viewed at a dis- 

tance, as a pictorial long-shot; and that 
some action will be benefited by moving- 
camera treatment, while other action 
would be killed by such treatment. The 
greatest skill, of course, is required in 
introducing and concluding such inter- 
ludes — joining them to the major plot of 
the picture, so that they are not just 
interludes, or extraneous embellishments, 
but active parts of the story. This can 

be quite as much a problem to the cine- 
matographer as it is to the director, bal- 
let-master, and the rest. The space here 
is far too limited to detail the examples 
of this technique as they should be de- 
scribed; but the two productions I have 
recently made with Mr. Berkeley shculd 
serve as excellent examples of what can 
be achieved — regardless of the material 
at hand — by such co-operation.” 

116 American Cinematographer • July 1933 



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Volume 1 





6331 Hollywood Blvd. 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Special Effect Use of Filters 
Part II 

Continued from Page 91 

amount of red and green, each one stop- 
ping blue, will stop the blue entirely — 
therefore, we need not lose as much ex- 
posure in the foreground as would seem 
at first blush in order to reduce the sky 
to the common gray of the foreground 
that we want. 

Another situation is a blue sky and 
green trees, shrubs, grass, etc., with gray 
sidewalk, etc., the blue sky having the 
greatest illumination. Applying our rule 
again, we would use a green filter to 
decrease the sky exposure and allow all 
of the green to pass through the filter 
and obtain the least contrast possible 
between the blue and the green by re- 
ducing all of the light to green. The 
use of green filters for flat night and gray 
dawn scenes is very effective because 
there is usually a predominance of green 
foliage to be had, also if there are peo- 
ple in the scene the green holds back 
the red in the faces and gives a darker 
gray gray appearance that is very natural 
for that kind of scene. 

The examples of filter applications and 
combinations are unlimited, but the three 
illustrations should serve as a guide to 
practically every situation there is in 
making flat scenes. However, we did not 
mention making contrasty moonlight 
scenes, so we will use our first illustra- 
tion of the blue sky, white clouds, white 
house, etc. If we use a red-yellow filter 
of very red and less green combination 
we will get the greatest exposure from 
our whites that can be had, because we 
are getting most of the red and some 
green from our white, and we will turn 
our blue sky black, giving extreme con- 
trast instead of the flatness we obtained 
with the blue filter on the same scene. 
Also, if there are people in the scene 
light from the faces will pass through 
the filter almost the same as light from 
the white house, so that they will have 
the contrasty white faces which have 
been so apparent in many of our moon- 
light scenes. 

Wheels of Industry 

Continued from Page 96 

starting from clear to the density desired 
by the Cinematographer. They overlap 
each other, coming in from opposite sides, 
and by means of a screw and rack they 
are worked so as to bring the deeper 
density in from each side and overlap 
each other. This eliminates the diffu- 
sion coming in from one side, which has 
been the case up until now and has been 
very obvious on the screen. This new 
method brings the diffusion in from both 
sides at the same time. This type of 
holder has been in demand among the 
studio cameramen for a long time, especi- 

ally for dolly shots. The adapter was de- 
signed by Joseph Walker, A.S.C. George 
Scheibe manufactures the filters for this 
new holder. 

Fotoshop Editor 

• In our report last month on the rewind 
being marketed by the Fotoshop of 

New York City, we failed to mention that 
this device is also an editor, as well as a 

New Victor 5 Speed Model 

• Announcement from Victor Animato- 
graph Company described a new 5- 

speed 16 mm. camera to sell at $67.50. 
This is finished in gold-flecked lava 
brown with chrome trim and equipped 
with the Triple Anastigmat Dallmeyer 
F.2.9 fixed focus lens. The camera is 
known as their new 5-Speed Model 3. 

Filming the National 
Air Races 

Continued from Page 102 
racing planes will be flying so fast they’ll 
be hard to follow; they will make four 
runs in opposite directions over the meas- 
ured one-kilometer straightaway course, 
diving to gain speed, and passing in front 
of the stands, about 50 or 100 feet in the 
air at speeds of about 300 miles per hour. 
Try the one-inch lens on the first run, 
and the two-inch on the successive ones 
if you find it feasible. Filtering will de- 
pend on the coloring of the planes used. 
After this, the fortunate and fair lady- 
pilot will probably be called "front cen- 
ter” to the judges’ stand, where you can 
get some nice close-ups with the 2-inch 
or 3-inch. The next important event will 
probably be the arrival of the Bendix Tro- 
phy racers from New York (the winner 
probably having made the hop in less 
than ten hours) ; another job for the 2- 
inch. The try for a world’s delayed- 
opening parachute jump, in which the 
jumper will try to fall four or five miles 
before opening his ’chute, will probably 
be poor picture-material, so take it or 
leave it, as you wish. I’d leave it. 

"SECOND DAY.” Here you can be- 
gin to shoot the regular events — the less- 
er races for commercial pilots, the stunts, 
and the military displays. The stunting 
will take place at altitudes ranging from 
ground up to 3,000 feet, with most of 
it under 200 feet. Capt. Udet, the Ger- 
man Ace of Aces (remember his flying in 
"Piz Palu?”), specializes in extremely 
low stunting. The French stunter who 
flew last year specialized in stunting too 
close to the stands. The Polish and Ital- 
ian representatives specialize in precision 
flying. And the piece de resistance is 
Flight Lieutenant R. L. R. Atcherly’s 
"Crazy Flying”: this Englishman (a for- 
mer holder of the world’s speed record) 
can do more hair-raising evolutions with- 
out leaving the ground than anyone would 
dream could, be done, even by an addle- 

July 1933 8 American Cinematographer 117 

pated student-pilot. His “turn” often in- 
cludes playing tag with a motorcycle po- 
lice-officer, climaxed by running the rep- 
resentative of the law ignominously off 
the field. All of these stunt-exhibitions 
call for a judicious admixture of the 1- 
inch and 2-inch lenses, with the two pre- 
dominating. And don’t forget closeups 
of the European aces! The next major 
event is the Cleveland Aerol Trophy 
speed race for women: excellent practice 
for the still faster Thompson Trophy race 
for men, and (at better than 250 m.p.h.) 
a thriller in its own right. It’s a job for 
the 2-inch lens and filters — and don’t 
forget the closeups of the ladies! 

THIRD DAY. This will be a good 
day to concentrate on the Army and Navy 
“shows.” Mostly two-inch lens work, 
with some for the three. Heavy filters 
for the smoke-screens and bombing, with 
the exposure held well down. This will 
also probably be movie day, when you can 
shoot Hal Mohr and Wally Beery chasing 
each other around the race-course. Don’t 
forget the closeups, even if Hal isn’t 
quite so decorative as May Haizlip or 
Louise Thaden! 

FOURTH DAY” — being July fourth, 
this will be featured by a number of spe- 
cial events, not as yet definitely an- 
nounced, and by the super-speed classic, 
the Thompson Trophy race. By this time, 
you should have your hand well in at film- 
ing high-speed racing, and have seen 
enough of your previous work to know 
exactly how to handle your camera to 
get the best possible pictures of 300 
m.p.h. racing. This will also be a day to 
fill up your other sequences with indi- 
vidual shots of planes and pilots, and to 
make those “added scenes” and “re- 
takes that every good picture needs. 
There will also be some chance for this 
the following day, after the show has 
closed, for many of the contestants will 
still be at the field — and the crowds will 
be smaller, with most of the restrictions 
removed. And by this time, you will, 
from experience, be able to pass on to 
the other fellow the advice: “Don’t use 
too long-focused lenses; Don’t forget your 
tripod; artd Never think you’ve got 
enough closeups!” 

Killing the Process Hot Spot 

• Ingenious methods for obtaining results 
have made history in the development 
of Cinematography. With the popular use 
of Process Photography one of the prin- 
cipal bugaboos has been the hot spot on 
the screen. Several ingenious cinematog- 
raphers have overcome this by various 
methods. However, the most popular 
seems to be either the use of an opaque 
pencil, which is used for covering the 
center of the glass in front of the projec- 
tor to about the size of a half-dollar, 
making the center heavy and gradually 
bleeding off. The other is the use of a fil- 
ter in front of this glass, with the center 
dark and gradually lightening toward the 


115 West 45k 


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118 American Cinematographer • July 1933 





Camera Craft gath- 
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San Francisco, California 

Len Roos Gets Royal Appointment 

• Len H. Roos, A.S.C., F.R.P.S., now in 
Java making “Nature in the Raw” for 
Universal, reports that he has been hon- 
ored with a Royal appointment from the 
Soesoe Honan of Soerekarta. He writes: 
“Through the good graces of some 
friends in Java, I was invited to photo- 
graph the ceremonies relating to the mar- 
riage of three of the Royal Household of 
the Soesoe Honan of Soerekarta (who is 
the Sultan or King of the Javanese). For 
splendor I have never seen anything to 
touch it, and Universal should appreciate 
these, the first pictures ever made in the 
palace. The dances and costumes were 
beyond anything I have ever seen, and 
the gold displayed was amazing. I got 
the whole works in sound, and the com- 
pleted picture should be very interesting. 
To top it off, I have received a Royal 

Carbon Reduced in Size for 
Higher Intensity 

• Interest is keen in Hollywood in the 
recent carbon development for studio 

lighting made by the National Carbon Co. 

Primarily designed for the use of three- 
color process, as is employed by the Tech- 
nicolor Company, these carbons were de- 
veloped with a new type of core material, 
reducing the diameter from '/ 2 -inch to 
8 mm., and then applying a copper coat- 
ing. It is claimed this carbon carries as 
much current as the half-inch carbon car- 
ried, but gives a 40%% increase in 

Mole-Richardson is developing the lamp 
house and the first twenty-five are being 
delivered soon to the Technicolor Com- 
pany for final tests under actual studio 

Karl Freund, A.S.C., to 
New York 

• Karl Freund, A.S.C., has been assigned 
to the direction of Universal’s musical 
production, “Moonlight and Pretzels” 
(originally “Shoot the Works”, which is 
now in production at Astoria, L. I. This 
film — -Cinematographer Freund’s second 
American directorial assignment — stars 
Mary Brian and Leo Carrillo, and is be- 
ing supervised by Stanley Bergerman. 

Appointment from the Soesoe Honan as 
Cinematographer to his Royal Highness. 

I am informed that a decoration is to fol- 
low. The appointment is the Royal Coat 
of Arms in colors (many) together with 
a letter in Javanese. 

Commercial Studio Employs 
Silent Debrie Camera 

• One of the first of the silent Super 
Parvo Debrie cameras to be delivered in 

this country was received by the Jam 
Handy Picture Service, Inc., of Detroit, 

After using this camera in the studio, 
John Stricler of that corporation reported 
as follows to the New York office of the 
Andre Debrie corporation: 

“We operated the camera recording 
with microphone as close as 18 inches 
from the camera in a very live set and 
were unable to hear any camera noise. 
Our recording equipment is Western Elec- 
tric Noiseless and is in first class condi- 

Lights Discussed at S.M.P.E. 

• At the June meeting of the S.M.P.E. 
held in the Bell & Howell auditorium, 

Hollywood, under the chairmanship of 
Emery Huse, A.S.C., the latest develop- 
ment in studio lighting was demonstrated. 
Among those addressing the gathering 
were Elmer C. Richardson, of Mole Rich- 
ardson, who demonstrated and explained 
the new development in arcs for the use 
in making three-color pictures. 

R. M. Maxwell, of the Electrical Prod- 
ucts Corporation, described a development 
of his company known as the Lumenarc, 
a gaseous tube unit for daylight quality. 

Ralph E. Farnham, of the Mazda Lamp 
Division of the General Electric Company, 
described a new development in incan- 
descent lamps for motion picture lighting. 

John Boyle, A.S.C., in 
New York 

• John W. Boyle, Past President of the 
American Society of Cinematographers, 

is in New York concluding distribution 
arrangements for a series of Multicolor 
short-subjects he recently produced. 

Used in 96 % /G 
^TlUP-of the studios^ 

the world g 




July 1933 # American Cinematographer 119 


Handling the American Cinematographer 


Phoenix: Studio of Sound, P. O. Box 1671. 
Tucson: William M. Dennis, 22 United Bank 

Nogales: A. W. Lohn, 309 Morley Ave. 


judsonia: Lee’s Novelty House. 


Berkeley: Berkeley Commercial Photo Co., 2515 
Bancroft Way. 

Beverly Hills: Bob Robinson Home Movies, 417 

N. Beverly Drive. 

Fresno: Potter Drug Co., 1112 Fulton Ave. 
Glendale: Kug Art Photo Service, 205 So. 

Brand Blvd. 

Hollywood: Bell & Howell Co., 716 North La- 
Brea Ave. 

Educational Projecto Film Co., 1611 North 
Cahuenga Blvd. 

Hollywood Camera Exchange, Ltd., 1600 N. 
Cahuenga Blvd. 

Hollywood Citizen, 6366 Hollywood Blvd. 
Hollywood Movie Supply Co., 6038 Sunset 

J. V. Merchant, 6331 Hollywood Blvd. 
Morgan Camera Shop, 6305 Sunset Blvd. 
Universal News Agency, 1655 Las Palmas. 
Los Angeles: California Camera Hospital, 321 

O. T. Johnson Bldg. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 643 So. Hill 

T. Iwata Art Store, 256 East First St. 
Lehnkering Pharmacy, 1501 N. Western Ave. 
B. B. Nichols, 731 South Hope St. 
Tappenbeck & Culver, 10958 Weyburn Ave., 
Westwood Village. 

Victor Animatograph Corp., 650 So. Grand 

Wilshire Personal Movies, 3150 Wilshire 

Monrovia: Cliff’s Photo Art Shop. 

North Hollywood: Studio City Pharmacy, 12051 
Ventura Blvd. • 

Oakland: Adams & Co., 380 14th St. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1918 Broadway. 
Pasadena: The Flag Studio, 59 East Colorado St. 
Richard Fromme, 965 S. Fair Oaks. 

A. C. Vroman, 329 East Colorado St. 
Richmond: La Moine Drug Co., 900 Macdonald 

Sacramento: Frank McDougal, 1017 10th St. 
San Bernardino: Steele’s Photo Service, 370 D 

San Diego: Harold E. Lutes, 958 Fifth St. 

Ace Drug Co., 820 W. Washington St. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 419 Broadway. 
San Francisco: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 

21 6 Post St. 

Hirsch & Kaye, 239 Grant Ave. 

San Francisco Camera Exchange, 88 Third 

Schwabacher-Frey Stationery Co., 735 Mar- 
ket St. 

Sherman. Clay & Co., Kearny & Sutter Sts. 
Trainer-Parsons Optical Co., 228 Post Street. 
San Jose: Webb’s Photo Supply Store, 66 So. 
First St. 

San Rafael: Webb & Rogers, 4th & B Sts. 
Santa Barbara: J. Walter Collinge, 1127 State 

The Camera Shop, 800 State St. 

Faulding’s, 623 State St. 

Stockton: The Holden Drug Co., Weber Ave. 
& Sutter St. 

Logan Studios, 20 N. San Joaquin St. 


Denver: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 626 Six- 
teenth St. 

The May Co., 16th & Champa Sts. 


Bridgeport: Harvey & Lewis Co., 1148 Main 

Danbury: Heim’s Music Store, Inc., 221 Main 

Hartford: The D. G. Stoughton Co., 1255 S. 
Whitney St. 

Watkins Bros., 241 Asylum St. 

Meriden: Broderick & Curtin, 42 E. Main St. 
Middletown: F. B. Fountain Co., 483 Main St. 
New Haven: Eugene F. Clark Book Shop, 343 
Elm St. 

Norwich: Cranston Co., 25 Broadway. 
Waterbury: Curtis Art Co., 65 W. Main St. 


New Castle: E. Challenger & Son. 

Wilmington: Butler's Inc., 415 Market St. 
Wilmington Elec. Spec. Co., Inc., 405 Dela- 
ware Ave. 


Washington: Columbia Photo Supply Co., Inc., 
1424 New York Ave., N. W. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 607 14th St., 
N. W. 

Robbins, National Press Bldg., 529 14th St., 
N. W. 


Clearwater: Courtesy Cigar Store, Post Office 

Jacksonville: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 129 
W. Adams St. 

Miami: Miami Photo Supply Co., 31 S. E. 
First Ave. 

St. Petersburg: Robinson's Camera Shop, 410 
Central Ave. 

Tampa: Burgert Bros., Inc., 608 Madison St. 


Atlanta: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 183 

Peachtree St. 


Boise: Ballou-Latimer Co., 9th & Idaho. 


Bloomington: Hawkins Studio, 214 W. Wash- 

Chicago: Aimer, Coe & Co., 105 N. Wabash 

Associated Film Libraries, Inc., Suite 224, 
190 N. State St. 

Bass Camera Co., 179 West Madison St. 
Central Camera Co., 230 S. Wabash Ave. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 133 N. Wabash 

Fair, The, Camera Dept., 7th Floor, State- 
Adams-Dearborn Sts. 

Lake Shore Radio Co., 3204-6 Broadway. 
Lyon & Healy, Inc., Wabash Ave. at Jack- 
son Blvd. 

Stanley Warren Co., 918 Irving Park Blvd. 
Norman Willets Co., 318 W. Washington St. 
Wolk Camera Co., 201 S. Dearborn St. 
Evanston: Aimer, Coe & Co., 1645 Orrington 

Hattstrom & Sanders, Inc., 702 Church St. 
Galesburg: Illinois Camera Shop, 84 So. 

Prairie St. 

Moline: Seaholms Kodak Co., 1507 Fifth Ave. 
Rockford: Johnson Photo Shop, 316 E. State St. 
Springfield: Camera Shop, The, 320 S. Fifth St. 


Evansville: Smith & Butterfield, 310 Main St. 
Fort Wayne: The Howard Co., Inc., 112 W. 
Wayne St. 

Indianapolis: L. S. Ayers & Co., Dept. 290, 
1 West Washington St. 

South Bend: Ault Camera Shop, 122 S. Main St. 
Terre Haute: Snyder's Art Store, 21 S. 7th St. 


Cedar Rapids: Camera Shop, 220 Third Ave. 
Davenport: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 318 
Brady St. 

Des Moines: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 808 
Locust St. 

Iowa City: Rexall & Kodak Store, 124 E. Col- 
lege St. 

Sioux City: Lynn’s Photo Finishing, Inc., 419 
Pierce St. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 608 Pierce St. 
Waterloo: Mack’s Photo Shop. 


Topeka: Hall Stationery Co., 623 Kansas Ave. 
Wichita: Jack Lewis Film Service, 329 Sedg- 
wick Building. 

Lawrence Photo Supply, 1 49 N. Lawrence 


Lexington: W. W. Still, 129 W. Short St. 
Louisville: A. L. Bollinger Drug Co., Stilz & 
Frankfort Ave. 

Sutcliffe Co., 225 S. 4th Ave. 


Alexandria: The Newcomb Studios, 324 John- 

Monroe: Griffin Studios, P. O. Box 681. 

New Orleans: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 213 
Baronne St. 


Auburn: Wells Sporting Goods Co., 52-54 

Court St. 

Portland: Bicknell Photo Service, 43 Exchange 


Baltimore: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 309 N. 
Charles St. 

Stark-Films, 219 W. Centre St. 

Zepp Photo Supply Co., 3044 Greenmount 

Hagerstown: R. M. Hays & Bros., 2830 W. 
Washington St. 


Boston: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 38 Brom- 
field St. 

Boston Camera Exchange, 44 Bromfield St. 
Cinecraft Co., of New England, 80 Boyl- 
ston St. 

Ralph Harris Co., 30 Bromfield St. 

Iver Johnson Sporting Goods Co., 1 55 Wash- 
ington St. 

Andrew J. Lloyd Co., 300 Washington St. 
Pathescope Co. of the N. E., Inc., 438 Stuart 

Pinkham & Smith Co., 1 5 Bromfield St. 
Stillfilm Sales Co., 40 Stuart St. 

Braintree: Alves Photo Shop, 349 Washington 

Cambridge: E. M. F. Electrical Supply Co., 430 
Massachusetts Ave. 

Lowell: Donaldson’s, 75 Merrimack St. 

Lynn: Moehring's, Inc., 490 Washington St. 
New Bedford: J. Arnold Wright, 7 S. Sixth St. 
Newtonville: Newton Photo Shop, 92 Bower St 
Pittsfield: E. C. Kilian, 41 1 North St. 

Salem: Pitman Movie Service, 45 Summit Ave. 
Springfield: Harvey & Lewis Co., 1503 Main 

J. E. Cheney & Co., Inc., 301 Bridge St. 
Worcester: Harvey & Lewis Co., 513 Main St. 


Detroit: Crowley i Milner & Co. 

Clark Cine-Service, Rooms 203-204 Profes- 
sional Bldg., 10 Peterboro. 

Detroit Camera Shop, 424 Grand River W. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1235 Wash- 
ington Blvd. 

H. C. Film Service, 12191 llene Ave. 

J. L. Hudson Co., Dept. 290. 

E. B. Meyrowitz, Inc., 1516 Washington 

Flint: Gardner Photo Service. 

Grand Rapids: Camera Shop Stores, Inc., 56 
Monroe Ave. 

Photo Service Shop, 44 Monroe Ave. 

Jackson: Royal Film Service, 125 Michigan 

Ave. W. 

120 American Cinematographer • July 1933 

Lansing: Linn Camera Shop, 109 S. Washing- 
ton Ave. 

Saginaw: Heavenrich Bros. & Co., 301 Genesee. 


Duluth: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 3 W. 
Superior St. 

LeRoy: Ivan E. Meyers, Home Movie Service, 
215 W. Main St. 

Minneapolis: Eastman Kodak Stores, 112-116 
So. Fifth St. 

Gospeter’s Blue Front, 1006 Nicollet Ave. 
National Camera Exchange, 5 South Fifth St. 
Owatonna: B. W. Johnson Gift Shop, 130 W. 
Bridge St. 

St. Paul: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., Kodak 
Bldg., 91 E. Sixth St. 

H. W. Fisher Photographic Supplies, 381 
Minnesota St. 


Kansas City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 916 
Grand Ave. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1006 Main St. 
Hanley’s Photo Shop, 116 E. 10th St. 

Plaza Camera Co., 218 Alameda Rd. 

St. Louis: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1009 
Olive St. 

Famous-Barr Co., M. P. Dept. 6th & Olive St. 
Geo. D. Fisher & Co., 915 Locust St. 


Billings: Midland Drug Co., 23 N. 27th St. 
Bozeman: Alexander Art Co. 


Lincoln: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1217 

O St. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 419 S 16th St. 
Omaha: J. G. Kretschmer & Co., 1617 Har- 
ney St. 


Lebanon: Photocraft Co. 

Newport: K. E. Waldron, 1 A Main St. 


Atlantic City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 
1735 Boardwalk. 

Bayonne: Milton Mendelwager, 192 Ave. B. 
Cliffside Park: Louis C. Ghiosay, 639 Anderson 

East Orange: Edmund J. Farlie Jr., 45 N. 19th 

Hawthorne: Hawthorne Home Movie Service, 
52 MacFarlan Ave. 

Irvington: Wolf Bros., 1340 Springfield Ave. 
Jersey City, Levy’s Sport Shop, 149 Monticello 

Montclair: Edward Madison Co., 42 Bloomfield 

Newark: Anspach Bros., 838 Broad St. 

Paterson: Robt. G. Smith, 40 Hamilton St. 

Sykes Drug Store, 179 Market St. 

Summit: Eastman Bookshop, 380 Springfield 

Trenton: Howard E. Thompson, 35 Newkirk 

Union City: Heraco Exchange, Inc., 61 1 Ber- 
genline Ave. 

West New York: Rembrandt Studios, Inc., 

526A Bergenline Ave. 


Santa Fe: Capital Pharmacy, Inc. 


Albany: Albany Photo Supply Co., Inc., 204 
Washington Ave. 

Binghamton: A. S. Bump Co., Inc., 180 Wash- 
ington St. 

Brooklyn: Geo. J. McFadden, Inc., 202 Flat- 
bush Ave. 

Abraham & Straus, Inc., Fulton & Hoyt Sts. 
J. Navilio, 1757 Broadway. 

Buffalo: Buffalo Photo Material Co., 37 Ni- 
agara St. 

Hauser Bob Studio, 11 West Tupper St. 

J. F. Adam's, Inc., 459 Washington St. 
Nowak Optical Co. 

United Projector & Film Corp., 228 Franklin 

Goshen: T. H. Finan. 

Haverstraw: E. H. Vandenburgh, 3 Broadway. 
Hempstead: Agnew’s, 47 Main St. 

Islip, H. L. Terry & Sons. 

Ithaca: Henry R. Head, 109 N. Aurora St. 
Long Island City: Leonard F. Kleinfield, 4202 
Queen’s Blvd. 

New Rochelle: Artist’s Photo Service, 219 
Hugenot St. 

New York City: Wm. C. Cullen, 12 Maiden 

Adam Archinai Corp., 305 W. 56th St. 

Ambercrombie & Fitch, 45th & Madison Ave. 
Bloomingdale’s, 59th & Lexington Ave. 

J. H. Boozer, 145 E. 60th St. 

Columbus Photo Supply Co., 146 Columbus 

Abe Cohen’s Exchange, 120 Fulton St. 
Davega, Inc., 1 1 1 East 42nd St. 

Davega, Inc., Empire State Building. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 356 Madison 
Ave. at 45th St. 

Fotoshop, Inc., 136 W. 32nd St. 

H. & D. Folsom Arms Co., 314 Broadway. 
Gall & Lembke, Inc., 7 East 48th St. 

Gillette Camera Stores, Inc., 117 Park Ave. 
Gimbel Bros., Dept. 575, 33rd St. & Broad- 

Joseph P. Hackel, 1919 Chanin Bldg., 122 
E. 42nd St. 

Harry’s Camera Exchange, 317 W. 50th St. 
Hecker’s Camera Store, 1519 Amsterdam 

Herbert & Huesgen Co., 18 E. 42nd St. 
Lugene, Inc., 600 Madison Ave., between 
57th & 58th. 

Luma Camera Service, Inc., 302 W. 34th St. 
Mogull Bros. Electric Corp’n., 1944 Boston 
Road, Bronx. 

Newman’s Camera Shop, 1197 Sixth Ave. 
New York Camera Exchange, 109 Fulton St. 
Pago, Inc., 1095 Sixth Ave. 

Pickup & Brown, 368 Lexington Ave. 

Rab Sons, 1373 Sixth Ave. 

Schoenig & Co., Inc., 8 East 42nd St. 

Sibley, Lindsay & Curr Co. 

Frank Tanham & Co., Inc., 9 Church St. 
Times Building News Stand, Inc., Times 

Willoughby’s. 110-112-114 West 32nd St. 
Richmond Hill: Josephson Bros., 10902 Ja- 
maica Ave. 

Rochester: Marks & Fuller, Inc., 36 East Ave. 

Smith, Surrey, Inc., 129 Clinton Ave., South. 
Rome: Fitchard Studio, 133-135 W. Liberty St. 
Schenectady: J. T. & D. B. Lyon, 236 State 

Syracuse: Geo. F. Lindemer, 443 S. Salina St. 

Francis Hendricks Co., Inc., 339 So. Warren 
Troy: A. M. Knowlson & Co., 350 Broadway. 

Utica: Edwin A. Hahn, 223-225 Columbia St. 
Yonkers: W. J. Dolega, 242 Nepperham Ave. 


Charlotte: W. I. Van Ness & Co., 213 N. 
Tryon St. 


Akron: Pockrandt Photo Supply Co., 16 N. 
Howard St. 

Canton: Ralph Young News Agency. 

The Camera Shop, 531 Market Ave. N. 
Cincinnati: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 27 
West Fourth St. 

Huber Art Co., 124 Seventh St., W. 

John L. Huber Camera Shop, 416V2 Main St. 
L. M. Prince Co., 108 W. Fourth St. 
Cleveland: The Home Movies, Inc., 2025 

Euclid Ave. 

Dodd Co., 652 Huron Road. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 806 Huron 
Road, 1862 E. 6th St., 1915 E. 9th St., 
Union Trust Bldg. 

Escar Motion Picture ervice, Inc., 10008 
Carneigie Ave. 

Halle Bros. Co., 1228 Euclid Ave. 

Higbee Co., 90 Public Square. 

Columbus: Capitol Camera Co., 7 E. Gay St. 
Columbus Photo Supply, 62 E. Gay St. 
Home Movies Co., 234 S. High St. 

Don McAllister Camera Co., 73 E. State St. 
Dayton: Dayton Camera Shop, 1 Third St., 

Middletown: Lee R. Chamberlain, care Roy A. 

White’s Elec. Shop, 48 S. Broad St. 
Portsmouth: V. E. Fowler, 824 Galia St. 
Salem: Butcher’s Studio. 166 South Broadway. 
Steubenville: Beall & Steele Drug Co., 424 
Market St. 

Toedo: Cross Photo Supply Co., 325 Superior 

Franklin Print & Eng. Co.. 226-36 Huron St. 
Youngstown: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 7 
Wick Ave. 

A. C. Saunders. 177 Benita Ave. 

Zanesville: Zulandt’s Drug Store, Widney, cor. 
Seventh 6r Main. 


Oklahoma City: H. O. Davis, 522 N. Broadway. 
Tulsa: Camera Shoppe. Inc., and the Charles 
High Productions, 1213 S. Boulder Ave. 


Lakeview: Getty’s Photo Studio, I.O. O.F. Bldg., 
Center & Main Sts. 

Marshfield: Mel's News Stand, cor. Broadway 
& Anderson. 

Pendleton: J. T. Snelson, 608 Gardner St. 
Portland: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 345 

Washington St. 

Lipman-Wolfe & Co., Kodak Dept., Fifth, 
Washington & Alder Sts. 

Meier & Frank Co., Kodak Dept., Fifth, Sixth, 
Morrison & Alder Sts. 


Allentown: M. S. Young & Co., 736-40 Ham- 
ilton St. 

Easton: Easton Sporting Goods Co., 2nd and 
Northampton St. 

Erie: Kelly Studios, 1026-28 Peach St. 
Harrisburg: James Lett Co., 225 N. 2nd St. 
Johnstown: Johnstown News Co., 115 Market 

Lancaster: Pugh’s Art Shoppe, 33 W. King St. 
Langhorne: National Entertainment Service, 

360 Bellevue Ave. 

Lebanon: Harpel’s, 757-9 Cumberland St. 
Philadelphia: Klein & Goodman, 18 South 

Tenth St. 

Camera Shop, 51 N. 52nd St. 

G. P. Darrow Co., Inc., 5623-5 Germantown 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1020 Chestnut 

Home Movies Studio. 20th & Chestnut Sts. 
MacCallum Stores, 1600 Sansom St. 

M. & H. Sporting Goods Co., 512 Market St. 
Newsreel Laboratory, 1707 Sansom St. 
Strawbridge & Clothier, Dept. 201, Market, 
Eighth & Filbert Sts. 

George W. Tegan, 420 E. Mt. Airy Ave. 
John Wanamaker’s Motion Picture Dept., 
No. 1 Broad St. 

Williams, Brown & Earle, Inc., 918 Chest- 
nut St. 

Pittsburgh: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 606 
Wood St. 

B. K. Elliott & Co., 126 - 6th St. 

Joseph Horne Co., Magazine Dept. 
Kaufmann Dept. Store, Inc., Dept. 62, Fifth 

Reading: W. F. Drehs. 541 Court St. 

Scranton: Houser’s, 133 N. Main Ave. 

Wallace & Cook, Inc., 2-5 N. Washington 

Scranton Home Movies Library, 316 N. 
Washington Ave. 

Shamokin: Jones Hardware Co., 115 E. Inde- 
pendence St. 

Wilkes Barre: Ralph DeWitt, 2 South River 

Windber: New Arts Feature, 508 - 15th St. 
York: Sweigart’s Photo Service Shop, 278 W. 
Market St. 


Pawtucket: Thomas N. Simpson, Broadway & 
Exchange St. 

Providence: E. P. Anthony, Inc., 178 Angell St. 
Starkweather & Williams, Inc., 47 Exchange 

Westcott, Slade & Balcom Co., 95-99 Empire 


Jackson: Southern Pictures Corp. 

Knoxville: Jim Thompson Co., 415 W. Church 

Memphis: Memphis Photo Supply Co., 122 
Union Ave. 

Nashville: Geo. C. Dury Co., 420 Union St. 


Abilene: W. C. Cosby, 249 Pine St 
Dallas: Jamieson Film Laboratories, 2212 Live 
Oak St. 

E. G. Marlow Co., 1610 Main St. 

Fort Worth: The Camera Shop, Inc., 113 W. 
Sixth St. 

Chas. G. Lord Optical Co., 704 Main St. 
Houston: Star Elec. & Eng. Co., Inc., 613 
Fannin St. 

San Antonio: Fox Co., 209 Alamo Plaza. 


Salt Lake City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 
3 1 5 S. Main St. 


Norfolk: G. L. Hall Optical Co., 257 Granbv St. 
Richmond: G. L. Hall Optical Co., 418 E. 
Grace St. 


Burlington: G. W. La Pierre’s, 71 Church St. 


Bellingham: Clyde Banks, 119 W. Holly St. 

Continued on Page 122 

July 1933 • American Cinematographer 121 

When to Use Special Effects 
— And How 

Continued from Page 100 

piece, shooting one frame at a time, and 
when the puzzle is all together, getting 
eight or ten frames of it completed. If 
you’ve done it properly, you’ll have your 
jig-saw puzzle assembling itself as the 
previous shot fades slowly out. (It might 
be a good idea to have the first twenty or 
thirty frames of the puzzle fade in quick- 
ly.) Now, when this second roll has 
been processed, splice it onto the scene 
from which your puzzle-enlargement was 
made, taking pains to make a very good 
splice — and when you project the film 
you’ll see the first shot fade out while 
the second laps quickly in as a jig-saw 
puzzle assembling itself; when the as- 
sembly is complete, the action will go 
on with only a very small jump The 
trick of this, of course, is to co-ordinate 
your fade-out with the footage required 
for assembling the puzzle: this may re- 
quire you to assemble the puzzle quick- 
ly, bringing in two or three pieces (or 
even more) in every frame. Properly 
done, however, it’s the sort of a shot 
that will make your friends rub their 
eyes and ask, “How in Sam Hill did you 
do that?” Incidentally, you can use this 
same general idea for a lot of trick tran- 
sitions such as whirls, page-turning, 
zooms, and the like. Try it! 

That disposes of the “How” of the 
subject, but what about the “When” and 
“Why?” Well, if you want a slow tran- 
sition between one scene and the next 
— for instance, where the element of 
time or distance between the two is con- 
siderable — use a simple fade-out fol- 
lowed by* a fade-in. If, on the other 
hand, you want a smooth, quicker tran- 
sition between two rather closely related 
scenes, locations or ideas, use a lap-dis- 
solve. If you want a quick, abrupt trrn- 
sition, simply cut from one to the other. 
Wipes, trick-transitions, and the like, 
should be treated as a cook treats pun- 
gent spices: use them sparingly, and 
only for a pronounced effect. A wipe, 
for instance, is midway between a lap 
and a cut — smooth, but noticeable. To 
sum the matter up, then, where you want 
your transitions noticeable, use either the 
slow fadeout-plus-fadein, the abrupt cut, 
or an eye-arresting wipe or trick; where 
you want them unobtrusive, use a lap- 

Treatise on Visual Fatigue 

• The Amusement Age Publishing Com- 
pany have issued a booklet titled “The 
Visual Fatigue of Motion Pictures.” This 
is a compilation of opinions of various 
people in the industry and of other data 
published on this widely discussed sub- 
ject. The booklet also delves into other 
phases of theatre audiences in the discus- 
sion of ventilation, seating posture, etc. 

1933 Amateur 


will be judged by the American Society of 
Cinematographers. . . . Each entrant will be 
given a personal review of his picture by a 
member of the Society. 

There will be a dozen or more classifica- 
tions under which the pictures will be 

Those given recognition for first place in 
the various classifications will be given a 
Cold Medallion. The greatest honor any 
Amateur Can Achieve. 

Pictures must be in the offices of the 
American Cinematographer not later than 
October 3 1 st. 

One of the 1932 Prize Winners is now 
being shown at the Century of Progress, 
Chicago. It is acknowledged by school au- 
thorities as one of the outstanding subjects 
for Primary Grades and is being placed in 
School Libraries. 

Write for Full Details to 


6331 Hollywood Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 

122 American Cinematographer 0 July 1933 

Directory of Dealers 

Continued from Page 120 
Pullman: Craves Studio. 

Seattle: Anderson Supply Co., 1 1 1 Cherry St. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1415 - 4th Ave. 
Lowman & Hanford Co., 1514 - 3rd Ave. 
Spokane: John W. Graham & Co., Dept. C, 707 
Sprague Ave. 

Joyner Drug Co., Howard & Riverside Ave. 
Tacoma: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 910 


VValla Walla: Book Nook Drug & Stationery 


Wheeling: Twelfth St. Garage, 81 - 12th St. 


Fond du Lac: Huber Bros., 36 S. Main St. 

La Crosse: Moen Photo Service, 313 Main St. 
Madison: Photoart House, 212 State St. 
Milwaukee: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 737 
N. Milwaukee St. 

Boston Store, Wisconsin Ave. & 4th St. 

W. E. Brown, 327 W. National Ave. 

Cimbel Bros., E. Wisconsin & N. Planking- 

Roa Meuer, The, 226 West Wells St. 
Phillips: Jakoubek's’, 132 N. Lake Ave. 

Racine: Photo-Crafts Shop, 526 College Ave. 


Melbourne: McGills Agency, 179-218 Eliza- 

beth St. 


Canton: International Book Co., 269 North 
Wing Hon Road. 


London: J. H. Dallmeyer, Ltd., 31 Mortimer 
St. and Oxford St W. I. 


Honolulu: Eastman Kodak Stores, 1059 Fort 


Bombay: Continental Photo Stores, 255 Hornby 

P. C. Eranee Sons, Albert Bldgs., Hornby 

Calcutta: Photographic Stores & Agency Co., 
154 Dhuramtolla St. 

M. L. Shaw, 5/1 Dhuramtolla St. 

Lucknow: Lucknow Commercial Co., 25 Amina- 
bad Park. 


American Photo Supply Co. S.A., Av. F.l, 
Madero, 43, Mexico, D.F. 


Warsaw: Polska Agencia Prasy Filmowe) 

Wspolna 35. 


Buenos Aires: Argentine Rep., Casa America 
Ltda. S. A. Avenda de Mavo 959. 

Hollywood Develops 
“Photo Row” 

What is coming to be dubbed “Photo- 
Row” in Hollywood is the four square 
blocks which include Hollywood Blvd., 
Sunset Blvd., Cahuenga Blvd. and Vine 

This section within the next month 
will house six Photographic dealers. The 
Hollywood Camera Exchange, the pioneer 
in this section is located on Cahuenga 
and Selma. Within the last month Edu- 
cational Projecto-Film Company opened 
new quarters almost directly across the 
street from the Camera Exchange. Faxon 
Dean will open his establishment some- 
time this month in the next block. 

On Sunset, Gilbert Morgan conducts 
the Morgan Camera Shop. On Vine St. 
Park Rees is putting the finishing touches 
to his new store and completing the circle 
is the Hollywood Citizen store on Holly- 
wood Blvd. 

( lassiiic <1 Aclv crl i*i us* 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, 
one dollar per insertion. 


FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor, 25 M.M. Lenses, 
1000 feet Mitchell Magazines, Baby Tripod. 
J. R. Lockwood, Glendale. Phone Douglas 
3361 -W. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box 
complete. Pliny Horne, 1318 N. Stanley. 
HO-7682 or HO-9431. 

• You want The Cinematographic Annual 


FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell & 
Howell silenced cameras, follow focus Pan 
lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. 
Akeley, DeBrie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, 
Willart, DeVry, Eyemo, Sept, Leica. Motors, 
Printers, lighting equipment. Also every 
variety of 16mm and still cameras and 
projectors. Everything photographic bought, 
so|d, rented and repaired. Send for our 
bargain catalogue. Open 8 A.M. to 10 P.M. 
Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1 600 Cahuenga 
Blvd. Phone: HO-3651 ; Cable address 



FOR RENT — Thoroughly silenced Mitchell cam- 
eras, Pan Astro lenses, follow focus. J. R. 
Lockwood, Glendale. Douglas 3361 -W. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed camera with 
latest 40, 50 and 75 mm. Pan-Astro lenses. 
1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod. 
Pliny Horne, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or 


AKELEY CAMERA- — Practically new, rebuilt for 
color; 40mm. and 50mm. lenses; 10 maga- 
zines; cases; tripod, etc. Cost $5,000 — will 
se|| for $1,250. Box R.W.S. care American 

FOR SALE — 35 MM. Pathe Studio Camera, 1 
f:3.5 Krauss Tessar; carrying case; three 
magazines, $100. Universal Tripod with 
carrying-case, $75. Box S, American Cinema- 
tographer, 1222 Guaranty Bldg., Hollywood. 

FOR SALE — Bell & Howell adapter for Mitchell 
Tripod head, 40-50-75-M.M. Astro lenses 
mounted and unmounted, Mitchell tripod 
head, Mitchell matte box. J. R. Lockwood, 
523 N. Orange St., Glendale, Calif. Doug- 
las 3361 -W. 

FOR SALE — Bell & Howell Standard Aperture 
Camera with Mitchell standard pan and tilt 
tripod 4 — 400 ft. magazines; 2 Raytar F 
2.3; 2" Carl Zeiss F 2.7 and 3" Goerz Hypar 
F 2.7 lenses; Lens Shade and Filter Holder. 
Veeder counter. Address Box E 145, Amer- 
ican Cinematographer, 6331 Hollywood 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

FOR SALE— Akeley Camera No. 256 with case, 
tripod and case, canoe mount, 5 extra maga- 
zines, 3 pair matched Zeiss lenses, 3 tele- 
photo lenses, slow motion attachment, iris, 
filters, masks, accessory case and trunk. 
New condition — used for only about 800 
feet of film. List price, $3400. Sale price 
$1500. Gillette Camera Stores, Inc., 117 
Park Ave., New York City. 

You want The Cinematographic Annual • 


FOR SALE— lea “Monopol” semi-portable 35 
MM. projector, complete with carrying-cases 
and extra carbons. Box S, care American 

FOR SALE — Special complete 16 mm. editor 
with geared rewinds, magnifier and splicer, 
$4.50 plus postage. Money refunded if not 
satisfactory. FOTOSHOP, 136 West 32nd 
St., New York City. 

FOR SALE — Cine Kodak Model A, new condi- 
tion, electric motor, $35.00; also 3A Kodak 
Special, excellent condition, $20.00. Write 
for details. W. L. McAlexander, 615 South 
85th Street, Birmingham, Alabama. 

544 pages of valuable information • 


SHOTGUNS, Target Pistols, Rifles and other 
good firearms may be traded in at liberal 
allowances on any photographic equipment, 
movie or still, including Bell & Howell Eye- 
mos and Filmos, Eastman, Victor, Leitz, 
Zeiss, Stewart Warner and other leading 
5 South 5th St., Minneapolis, Minn. 

WANTED — Sept Camera must be reasonable. 
Address Box VI 50 American Cinematog- 
rapher, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 

WANTED — DeVry 35mm. Hand-camera, double- 
claw movement. Must be cheap and in 
good condition. Box G, care American 

WANTED — Motor adapter. J. R. Lockwood, 
Glendale. Douglas 3361 -W. 

WANTED — Mitchell High Speed Silent Camera, 
box only, without equipment. Must be 
cheap for cash. Box 140, American Cinema- 

SITUATION WANTED — Motion Picture En- 
gineer, employed, desires executive position, 
preferably sales-engineering. Finest train- 
ing. Experienced cinematographer. In- 
structor cinematography, special representa- 
tive. Excellent references. Box 26, Amer- 
ican Cinematographer. 

WANTED — “Leica" enlarger; must be in good 
condition and cheap. Box H.R., care Ameri- 
can Cinematographer. 

An Important Warning 

• The Board of Governors of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers re- 
cently received the following communi- 
cation from an American cameraman 
working in South America: 

“I consider it my duty to warn all 
cinematographers of the following: There 
will be quite a few offers, full of glow- 
ing promises, from South American 
would-be producers (especially in the Ar- 
gentine) to cinematographers. I must 
warn my fellow-cinematographers to be 
very careful in even considering such of- 

fers, for down here not even contracts 
mean anything. The only thing to do is 
to have the contract endorsed by some 
good American bank, and then to be sure 
that one’s passage both ways is paid in 
advance. ... If you don’t take these pre- 
cautions, well, it is just too bad. This 
is the advice of an American cinematog- 
rapher who leaped before he looked — 
and paid his way through. 

“The local market is so limited that 
the production-cost of a picture “Made 
in Argentine” is seldom more than what 
would be paid the First Cameraman alone 
in Hollywood for making one film. 





Keep Your Camera Equipment 
in MAXIMUM Condition 

Our staff of train 
camera maintenan 
experts — 



T o-gether with a com- 
plete supply of parts 
. . . . enables us to 
render prompt and 

eff icient service on 
all repair work. 

Mitchell Camera Corporation 

Cable Address “MITCAMO” 


Phone OXford 1051